Comparing Levels of Job Satisfaction in the Countries of Western and Eastern Europe

Vani Borooah

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    16 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Against the plethora of studies of the factors influencing job satisfaction, this paper makes three contributions. First, in contrast to most studies of job satisfaction which are country-specific, the scope of this paper extends to 33 different countries. Comparing different countries on the basis of their mean job satisfaction scores ignores inequality in the distribution of scores between the countries’ individual respondents: the paper’s second contribution is to construct “equity-sensitive” job satisfaction scores for each country and, using these indicators, to compare their achievements with respect to job satisfaction. The third purpose of the paper is to answer the question posed in the title. The reason that West European countries have higher levels of job satisfaction compared to East European countries could, in part, be because they are better endowed with the “attributes” that promote job satisfaction; it could also, in part, be due to the “responses” of workers in West European countries, to a given set of attributes, being more conducive to job satisfaction than the corresponding responses of workers in East European countries. In this paper we estimate the relative importance of attributes and coefficients in determining differences in levels of job satisfaction between the two sets of countries. We do this by using the estimates from an ordered logit model to decompose the probability of being at a particular level of satisfaction into its “attributes” and “coefficients” parts. The empirical foundation for the study is provided by data for over 20,000 employed respondents, pertaining to the year 2000, obtained from the 1999-2002 Values Survey Integrated Data File.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages304-325
    JournalInternational Journal of Manpower
    Volume30
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

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    Job satisfaction
    Eastern Europe

    Keywords

    • Job satisfaction
    • inequality
    • ordered logit
    • decomposition analysis.

    Cite this

    @article{b8d6d98ddf9c4927ab5d0040c3380fca,
    title = "Comparing Levels of Job Satisfaction in the Countries of Western and Eastern Europe",
    abstract = "Against the plethora of studies of the factors influencing job satisfaction, this paper makes three contributions. First, in contrast to most studies of job satisfaction which are country-specific, the scope of this paper extends to 33 different countries. Comparing different countries on the basis of their mean job satisfaction scores ignores inequality in the distribution of scores between the countries’ individual respondents: the paper’s second contribution is to construct “equity-sensitive” job satisfaction scores for each country and, using these indicators, to compare their achievements with respect to job satisfaction. The third purpose of the paper is to answer the question posed in the title. The reason that West European countries have higher levels of job satisfaction compared to East European countries could, in part, be because they are better endowed with the “attributes” that promote job satisfaction; it could also, in part, be due to the “responses” of workers in West European countries, to a given set of attributes, being more conducive to job satisfaction than the corresponding responses of workers in East European countries. In this paper we estimate the relative importance of attributes and coefficients in determining differences in levels of job satisfaction between the two sets of countries. We do this by using the estimates from an ordered logit model to decompose the probability of being at a particular level of satisfaction into its “attributes” and “coefficients” parts. The empirical foundation for the study is provided by data for over 20,000 employed respondents, pertaining to the year 2000, obtained from the 1999-2002 Values Survey Integrated Data File.",
    keywords = "Job satisfaction, inequality, ordered logit, decomposition analysis.",
    author = "Vani Borooah",
    note = "Reference text: Anand, S. and A. Sen (1997). Concepts of Human Development and Poverty: A Multidimensional Perspective, Human Development Report 1997 Papers, New York, UNDP. Atkinson, A.B. (1970). “On the Measurement of Inequality.” Journal of Economic Theory vol. 2, pp. 244-263. Bellamy, S., Morley, C., and Watty, K. (2003), “Why British Academics Remian in Australia Despite Deteriorating Work Conditions and Reduced Job Satisfaction: An Intellectual Puzzle”, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol. 25, pp. 13-28. Bellfield, C.R. and Harris, R.D.F. (2002), “How Well Do Theories of Job Matching Explain Variations in Job Satisfaction across Education Levels?”, Applied Economics, vol. 34, pp. 535-548. Bender, K.A., Donohue, S.M., and Heywood, J.S. (2005), “Job Satisfaction and Gender Segregation”, Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 57, pp. 479-496. Birdi, K.S., Warr. P.B., and Oswald, A. (1995), “Age Differences in Three Components of Employee Well-Being,” Applied Psychology, vol. 44, pp. 345-73. Blanchflower, D. and Oswald, A.J. (1999), Well-being, Insecurity, and the Decline of American Job Satisfaction, Working Paper, Department of Economics: Hanover NH, Dartmouth College. Borooah, V.K. and Iyer, S. (2005), “The Decomposition of Inter-Group Differences in a Logit Model: Extending the Blinder-Oaxaca Approach with an Application to School Enrolment in India”, Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, vol. 30, pp. 279-293. Borooah, V.K. (2006), “How Much Happiness is there in the World? A Cross Country Study”, Applied Economics Letters vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 483-488. Brown, D. and McIntosh, S. (2003), “Job Satisfaction in the Low Wage Service Sector”, Applied Economics, vol. 35, pp. 91-118. Bryson, A., Cappellari, L., and Lucifora, C. (2004), “Does Union Membership Really Reduce Job Satisfaction, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 42, pp. 439-459. Clark, A.E. (1996), “Job Satisfaction in Britain”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 34, pp. 189-217. Clark, A.E., Oswald, A.J., and Warr, P.B (1996), “Is Job Satisfaction U-Shaped in Age”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 69, pp. 57-82. Clark, A. and Oswald, A. (1996), “Satisfaction and Comparison Income”, Journal of Public Economics, vol. 61, pp. 359-81. Clark, A. (1997), “Why are Women so Happy at Work?”, Labour Economics, vol. 4, pp. 341-372. Chevalier, A. and Lydon, R. (2002), Estimates of the Effect of Wages on Job Satisfaction, Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper 531, London: London School of Economics. Donohue, S.M. and Heywood, J.S. (2004), “Job Satisfaction and Gender, An Expanded Specification from NLSY”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25, pp. 211-234. Frank, R.H. (1997), {"}The Frame of Reference as a Public Good{"}, Economic Journal, vol. 107, pp. 1832-47. Frank, R.H. (1999), Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Greene, W.H. (2000), Econometric Analysis, Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs:, NJ. Green, F. and Tsitsianis, N. (2005), “An Investigation of National Trends in Job Satisfaction in Britain and Germany”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 43, pp. 401-429. Grund, C. and Sliwka, D. (2003), The Further We Stretch, the Higher the Sky – on the Impact of Wage Increases on Job Satisfaction, Bonn Economics Discussion Paper 2003, 25, Bonn: University of Bonn. Hammersh, D. (2001), “The Changing Nature of Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 36, pp. 1-30. Ingelhart, R., Bas{\'a}{\~n}ez, M., D{\'i}ez-medrano, Halmn, L., Luijkx, R. (2004), Human Beliefs and Values: a cross-cultural sourcebook based on the 990-2002 values surveys, Siglo XXI Editores: Buenos Aires. Judge, T.A. and Watanabe, S. (1993), “Another Look at the Job Satisfaction-Life Satisfaction Relationship”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 78, pp. 939-948. Jurges, H. (2003), “Age, Cohort, and the Slump in Job Satisfaction among West German Workers”, Labour, vol. 17, pp. 489-518. Layard, R. (2006), Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, London: Penguin Books. Linz, S.J. (2003), “Job Satisfaction Among Russian Workers”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24, pp. 626-652. Long, A. (2005), “Happy Ever After? A Study of Job Satisfaction in Australia”, Economic Record, vol. 81, pp. 303-321. Lovett, S., Coyle, T., and Adams, R. (2004), “Job Satisfaction and Technology in Mexico”, Journal World Business, vol. 39, pp. 217-232. Luchak, A.A. and Gellatly, I.R. (2002), “How Pension Accrual Affects Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Labor Research, vol. 23, pp. 145-162. Nielsen, H.S. (1998), “Discrimination and Detailed Decomposition in a Logit Model”, Economics Letters, vol. 61, pp. 115-120. Oshagbemi, T. (2003), “Personal Correlates of Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from UK Universities”, International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 30, pp. 1210-1232. Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review, vol. 14, pp. 693-709. Renaud, S. (2002),”Rethinking the Union Membership/Job Satisfaction Relationship”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 23, pp. 137-150. Rodriguez-Pose, A. and Vilalta-Bufi, M. (2005), “Education, Migration, and Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Economic Geography, vol. 5, pp. 545-566. Rose, M. (2005), “Job Satisfaction in Britain: Coping with Complexity”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 43, pp. 455-467. Sen, A.K. (1998), On Economic Inequality, Oxford University Press: Delhi. Shields, M.A. and Price, S.W. (2002), “Racial Harassment, Job Satisfaction and Intentions to Quit: Evidence from the British Nursing Profession”, Economica, vol. 62, pp. 295-326. Sousa-Poza, A.and Sousa-Poza, A.A (2000), “Well-being at work: a cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction”, Journal of Socio-Economics, vol. 29, pp. 517-538. Sousa-Poza, A.and Sousa-Poza, A.A (2003), “Gender Differences in Job satisfaction in Great Britain, 1991-2000: Permanent or Transitory”, Applied Economic Letters, vol. 10, pp. 691-694. Vila, L. and Garcia-Mora, B. (2005), “Education and the Determinants of Job Satisfaction”, Education Economics, vol. 13, pp. 409-425. Warr, P.B. (1999), “Well-being and the Workplace” in D. Kahneman, E. Diener, and N. Schwarz (eds), Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, New York: The Russell Sage Foundation.",
    year = "2009",
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    language = "English",
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    journal = "International Journal of Manpower",
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    }

    Comparing Levels of Job Satisfaction in the Countries of Western and Eastern Europe. / Borooah, Vani.

    In: International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2009, p. 304-325.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Comparing Levels of Job Satisfaction in the Countries of Western and Eastern Europe

    AU - Borooah, Vani

    N1 - Reference text: Anand, S. and A. Sen (1997). Concepts of Human Development and Poverty: A Multidimensional Perspective, Human Development Report 1997 Papers, New York, UNDP. Atkinson, A.B. (1970). “On the Measurement of Inequality.” Journal of Economic Theory vol. 2, pp. 244-263. Bellamy, S., Morley, C., and Watty, K. (2003), “Why British Academics Remian in Australia Despite Deteriorating Work Conditions and Reduced Job Satisfaction: An Intellectual Puzzle”, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol. 25, pp. 13-28. Bellfield, C.R. and Harris, R.D.F. (2002), “How Well Do Theories of Job Matching Explain Variations in Job Satisfaction across Education Levels?”, Applied Economics, vol. 34, pp. 535-548. Bender, K.A., Donohue, S.M., and Heywood, J.S. (2005), “Job Satisfaction and Gender Segregation”, Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 57, pp. 479-496. Birdi, K.S., Warr. P.B., and Oswald, A. (1995), “Age Differences in Three Components of Employee Well-Being,” Applied Psychology, vol. 44, pp. 345-73. Blanchflower, D. and Oswald, A.J. (1999), Well-being, Insecurity, and the Decline of American Job Satisfaction, Working Paper, Department of Economics: Hanover NH, Dartmouth College. Borooah, V.K. and Iyer, S. (2005), “The Decomposition of Inter-Group Differences in a Logit Model: Extending the Blinder-Oaxaca Approach with an Application to School Enrolment in India”, Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, vol. 30, pp. 279-293. Borooah, V.K. (2006), “How Much Happiness is there in the World? A Cross Country Study”, Applied Economics Letters vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 483-488. Brown, D. and McIntosh, S. (2003), “Job Satisfaction in the Low Wage Service Sector”, Applied Economics, vol. 35, pp. 91-118. Bryson, A., Cappellari, L., and Lucifora, C. (2004), “Does Union Membership Really Reduce Job Satisfaction, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 42, pp. 439-459. Clark, A.E. (1996), “Job Satisfaction in Britain”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 34, pp. 189-217. Clark, A.E., Oswald, A.J., and Warr, P.B (1996), “Is Job Satisfaction U-Shaped in Age”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 69, pp. 57-82. Clark, A. and Oswald, A. (1996), “Satisfaction and Comparison Income”, Journal of Public Economics, vol. 61, pp. 359-81. Clark, A. (1997), “Why are Women so Happy at Work?”, Labour Economics, vol. 4, pp. 341-372. Chevalier, A. and Lydon, R. (2002), Estimates of the Effect of Wages on Job Satisfaction, Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper 531, London: London School of Economics. Donohue, S.M. and Heywood, J.S. (2004), “Job Satisfaction and Gender, An Expanded Specification from NLSY”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25, pp. 211-234. Frank, R.H. (1997), "The Frame of Reference as a Public Good", Economic Journal, vol. 107, pp. 1832-47. Frank, R.H. (1999), Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Greene, W.H. (2000), Econometric Analysis, Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs:, NJ. Green, F. and Tsitsianis, N. (2005), “An Investigation of National Trends in Job Satisfaction in Britain and Germany”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 43, pp. 401-429. Grund, C. and Sliwka, D. (2003), The Further We Stretch, the Higher the Sky – on the Impact of Wage Increases on Job Satisfaction, Bonn Economics Discussion Paper 2003, 25, Bonn: University of Bonn. Hammersh, D. (2001), “The Changing Nature of Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 36, pp. 1-30. Ingelhart, R., Basáñez, M., Díez-medrano, Halmn, L., Luijkx, R. (2004), Human Beliefs and Values: a cross-cultural sourcebook based on the 990-2002 values surveys, Siglo XXI Editores: Buenos Aires. Judge, T.A. and Watanabe, S. (1993), “Another Look at the Job Satisfaction-Life Satisfaction Relationship”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 78, pp. 939-948. Jurges, H. (2003), “Age, Cohort, and the Slump in Job Satisfaction among West German Workers”, Labour, vol. 17, pp. 489-518. Layard, R. (2006), Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, London: Penguin Books. Linz, S.J. (2003), “Job Satisfaction Among Russian Workers”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24, pp. 626-652. Long, A. (2005), “Happy Ever After? A Study of Job Satisfaction in Australia”, Economic Record, vol. 81, pp. 303-321. Lovett, S., Coyle, T., and Adams, R. (2004), “Job Satisfaction and Technology in Mexico”, Journal World Business, vol. 39, pp. 217-232. Luchak, A.A. and Gellatly, I.R. (2002), “How Pension Accrual Affects Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Labor Research, vol. 23, pp. 145-162. Nielsen, H.S. (1998), “Discrimination and Detailed Decomposition in a Logit Model”, Economics Letters, vol. 61, pp. 115-120. Oshagbemi, T. (2003), “Personal Correlates of Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from UK Universities”, International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 30, pp. 1210-1232. Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review, vol. 14, pp. 693-709. Renaud, S. (2002),”Rethinking the Union Membership/Job Satisfaction Relationship”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 23, pp. 137-150. Rodriguez-Pose, A. and Vilalta-Bufi, M. (2005), “Education, Migration, and Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Economic Geography, vol. 5, pp. 545-566. Rose, M. (2005), “Job Satisfaction in Britain: Coping with Complexity”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 43, pp. 455-467. Sen, A.K. (1998), On Economic Inequality, Oxford University Press: Delhi. Shields, M.A. and Price, S.W. (2002), “Racial Harassment, Job Satisfaction and Intentions to Quit: Evidence from the British Nursing Profession”, Economica, vol. 62, pp. 295-326. Sousa-Poza, A.and Sousa-Poza, A.A (2000), “Well-being at work: a cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction”, Journal of Socio-Economics, vol. 29, pp. 517-538. Sousa-Poza, A.and Sousa-Poza, A.A (2003), “Gender Differences in Job satisfaction in Great Britain, 1991-2000: Permanent or Transitory”, Applied Economic Letters, vol. 10, pp. 691-694. Vila, L. and Garcia-Mora, B. (2005), “Education and the Determinants of Job Satisfaction”, Education Economics, vol. 13, pp. 409-425. Warr, P.B. (1999), “Well-being and the Workplace” in D. Kahneman, E. Diener, and N. Schwarz (eds), Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, New York: The Russell Sage Foundation.

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - Against the plethora of studies of the factors influencing job satisfaction, this paper makes three contributions. First, in contrast to most studies of job satisfaction which are country-specific, the scope of this paper extends to 33 different countries. Comparing different countries on the basis of their mean job satisfaction scores ignores inequality in the distribution of scores between the countries’ individual respondents: the paper’s second contribution is to construct “equity-sensitive” job satisfaction scores for each country and, using these indicators, to compare their achievements with respect to job satisfaction. The third purpose of the paper is to answer the question posed in the title. The reason that West European countries have higher levels of job satisfaction compared to East European countries could, in part, be because they are better endowed with the “attributes” that promote job satisfaction; it could also, in part, be due to the “responses” of workers in West European countries, to a given set of attributes, being more conducive to job satisfaction than the corresponding responses of workers in East European countries. In this paper we estimate the relative importance of attributes and coefficients in determining differences in levels of job satisfaction between the two sets of countries. We do this by using the estimates from an ordered logit model to decompose the probability of being at a particular level of satisfaction into its “attributes” and “coefficients” parts. The empirical foundation for the study is provided by data for over 20,000 employed respondents, pertaining to the year 2000, obtained from the 1999-2002 Values Survey Integrated Data File.

    AB - Against the plethora of studies of the factors influencing job satisfaction, this paper makes three contributions. First, in contrast to most studies of job satisfaction which are country-specific, the scope of this paper extends to 33 different countries. Comparing different countries on the basis of their mean job satisfaction scores ignores inequality in the distribution of scores between the countries’ individual respondents: the paper’s second contribution is to construct “equity-sensitive” job satisfaction scores for each country and, using these indicators, to compare their achievements with respect to job satisfaction. The third purpose of the paper is to answer the question posed in the title. The reason that West European countries have higher levels of job satisfaction compared to East European countries could, in part, be because they are better endowed with the “attributes” that promote job satisfaction; it could also, in part, be due to the “responses” of workers in West European countries, to a given set of attributes, being more conducive to job satisfaction than the corresponding responses of workers in East European countries. In this paper we estimate the relative importance of attributes and coefficients in determining differences in levels of job satisfaction between the two sets of countries. We do this by using the estimates from an ordered logit model to decompose the probability of being at a particular level of satisfaction into its “attributes” and “coefficients” parts. The empirical foundation for the study is provided by data for over 20,000 employed respondents, pertaining to the year 2000, obtained from the 1999-2002 Values Survey Integrated Data File.

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    KW - inequality

    KW - ordered logit

    KW - decomposition analysis.

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