South Africa and Northern Ireland have experienced bitter ethnonational conflicts in which thetransition to a peaceful political settlement has been characterized by crime and violence. In the case of Northern Ireland, this transition is still ongoing. This article examines the alternativepolicing and informal justice mechanisms, which have developed in the townships of South Africa and within the working-class districts of Northern Ireland. These mechanisms offer the inhabitants of such areas instant redress and retributive justice. This article is also concerned with the community-based restorative justice projects, which have been established in certain areas within both countries and examines whether such projects have an impact on vigilante attacks in South Africa and paramilitary “punishments” in Northern Ireland.
Bibliographical noteReference text: Altbeker, A. (2005). Positive trends: The 2004/05 crime statistics. South Africa Crime Quarterly, 14, 1-10.
Auld, J. (2006, March 26). Why the SDLP has it wrong. Sunday World, p. 10.
Auld, J., Gormally, B., McEvoy, K., & Ritchie, M. (1997). Designing a system of restorative community justice in Northern Ireland: A discussion document. Belfast, UK: Authors.
Barclay, G. C., & Tavares, C. (2000). International comparisons of criminal justice statistics. London: Home Office.
Batley, M. (2005). Outline of relevant policies. In T. Maepa (Ed.), Beyond retribution: Prospects for restorative justice in South Africa (pp. 120-126). Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies and the Restorative Justice Centre.
Bell, C. (1996). Alternative justice in Ireland. In N. Dawson, D. Greer, & P. Ingram (Eds.), One hundred and fifty years of Irish law (pp. 145-167). Belfast, UK: SLS Legal.
Boehrer, F. (2006). The Good Samaritan or the person in the ditch? An attempt to live a restorative lifestyle. In D. Sullivan & L. Tifft (Eds.), Handbook of restorative justice (pp. 546-554). London: Routledge.
Braithwaite, J. (2003). Principles of restorative justice. In A. von Hirsch, J. V. Roberts, A. Bottoms, K. Roach, & M. Schiff (Eds.), Restorative justice and criminal justice (pp. 1-20). Oxford, UK: Hart.
Braithwaite, J., & Strang, H. (2001). Restorative justice and civil society. In H. Strang & J. Braithwaite (Eds.), Restorative justice and civil society (pp. 1-13). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Brewer, J. D., Lockhart, B., & Rogers, P. (1998). Informal social control and crime management in Belfast. British Journal of Sociology, 49, 570-583.
Brogden, M., & Shearing, C. (1993). Policing for a new South Africa. London: Routledge.
Burton, P., du Plessis, A., Leggett, T., Louw, A., Mistry, D., & van Vuuren, H. (2004). National victims of crime survey: South Africa 2003 (ISS Monograph Series No. 101). Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.
Cartwright, J., & Jenneker, M. (2005). Governing security: A working model in South Africa—The peace committee (Criminal Justice Conference February 7-8). Retrieved July 4, 2006, from http://www.csvr.org.za/confpaps/cartwright.htm
Community Peace Programme. (n.d.). Community peace-making: Building a model of democratic governance. Cape Town, South Africa: Author.
Consedine, J. (1999). Restorative justice: Healing the effects of crime. Lyttelton, New Zealand: Ploughshares.
Conway, P. (1997). A response to paramilitary policing in Northern Ireland. Critical Criminology, 8, 109-122.
Dignan, J., & Lowey, K. (2000). Restorative justice options for Northern Ireland: A comparative review. Belfast, UK: Stationery Office.
Dixon, B. (2004). In search of interactive globalisation: Critical criminology in South Africa’s transition. Crime, Law and Social Change, 41, 359-384.
Doyle, S. (2001, April 30). Ex-drug dealer shot six times. Irish News (Belfast), p. 11.
The Economist. (2003, October 11). Small mercies: Crime in South Africa. The Economist, p. 66.
Gil, D. G. (2006). Toward a “radical” paradigm of restorative justice. In D. Sullivan & L. Tifft (Eds.), Handbook of restorative justice (pp. 499-511). London: Routledge.
Gilbert, M. J., & Settles, T. L. (2007). The next step: Indigenous development of neighbourhood-restorative community justice. Criminal Justice Review, 32, 5-25.
Hall, M. (2000). Restoring relationships: A community exploration of anti-social behaviour, punishment beatings and restorative justice. Newtownabbey, UK: Farest Community Think Tank Project.
Hillyard, P. (1985). Popular justice in Northern Ireland: Continuities and change. Research in Law, Devianceand Social Control, 7, 247-267.
Hosken, G. (2006, June 23). Alleged robbers stoned by angry villagers. The Pretoria News, p. 2.
Independent International Commission on Decommissioning. (2005, September 26). Report of the independent international commission on decommissioning. Belfast, UK: Author.
International Monitoring Commission. (2006). Eighth report of the independent monitoring commission. London: The Stationery Office.
Kennedy, L. (1995). Nightmares within nightmares: Paramilitary repression within working-class communities. In L. Kennedy (Ed.), Crime and punishment in West Belfast (pp. 67-80). Belfast, UK: The Summer School, West Belfast.
Knox, C., & Monaghan, R. (2002). Informal justice in divided societies. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Marshall, T. F. (2003). Restorative justice: An overview. In G. Johnstone (Ed.), A restorative justice reader (pp. 28-45). Cullompton, UK: Willan.
Mbeki, T. (1999). Presidential inauguration speech. Retrieved July 4, 2006, from http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/mbeki/1999/tm0616.html
McEvoy, K. (1999). Introduction to Restorative Justice. In NIACRO (Ed.), Reflections on restorative justice in the community (pp. 17-20). Belfast, UK: NIACRO.
McEvoy, K. (2000, October 7). Working to end the back-alley “justice”. The Irish News, p. 4.
McEvoy, K., & Mika, H. (2002). Restorative justice and the critique of informalism in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Criminology, 42, 534-562.
McGloin, J. M. (2006). A historical consideration of the police and prosecution/courts in Northern Ireland.
International Criminal Justice Review, 16, 77-98.
McGuigan, C. (1999, March 22). Boy (13) is ordered out of country after beating. The Belfast Telegraph, p. 4.
Minnaar, A. (1995). Desperate justice. Crime and conflict, 2, 9-12.
Mistry, D. (2004). Falling crime, rising fear: 2003 National Victims of Crime survey. South Africa Crime Quarterly, 8, 17-24.
Monaghan, R. (2002). The return of “Captain Moonlight”: Informal justice in Northern Ireland. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 25(1), 41-56.
Morrissey, M., & Pease, K. (1982). The Black criminal justice system in West Belfast. Howard Journal, 21,159-166.
Mowlam, M. (1999, August 27). Secretary of State’s judgement on alleged breech of cease-fire. Belfast, UK: Northern Ireland Office.
Munck, R. (1984). Repression, insurgency, and popular justice: The Irish case. Crime and Social Justice, 21, 81-94.
Nina, D. (1995). Re-thinking popular justice. Cape Town, South Africa: Community Peace Foundation.
Northern Ireland Affairs Committee. (2001). Relocation following paramilitary intimidation. London: House of Commons.
Northern Ireland Office. (2005). Consultation on draft guidelines for community-based restorative justice schemes. Belfast, UK: Author.
Northern Ireland Office. (2007). Protocol for community-based restorative justice schemes. Belfast, UK: Author.
The Pretoria News. (2006, July 3). Man dies as dispute ends in mob justice. The Pretoria News, p. 3.
Report of the Chief Constable. (2000). RUC: 1999/2000. Belfast, UK: Royal Ulster Constabulary.
Report of the Chief Constable. (2007). Police service of Northern Ireland: 2006-2007. Belfast, UK: PSNI.
Report of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland. (1999). A new beginning: Policing in Northern Ireland. Belfast, UK: HMSO.
Roche, D. (2002). Restorative justice and the regulatory state in South African townships. British Journal of Criminology, 42, 514-533.
Seekings, J. (1992). The revival of “People’s Courts.” In G. Moss & I. Obery (Eds.), From “Red Friday” to Codesa (pp. 186-200). Johannesburg, South Africa: Raven Press.
Silke, A. (1999). Ragged justice: Loyalist vigilantism in Northern Ireland. Terrorism and Political Violence, 11, 1-31.
Skelton, A., & Batley, M. (2006). Charting progress, mapping the future: Restorative justice in South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.
Soggot, M., & Ngobeni, E. (1999, May 14). We must work on their buttocks. Weekly Mail and Guardian (Johannesburg). Retrieved May 30, 2000, from http://www.mg.co.za/articledirect.aspx?articleid=161459&
South African Institute of Race Relations. (2001). South Africa Survey 1999/2000. Johannesburg, South Africa: Author.
South African Law Commission. (1999, October). Community dispute resolution structures. Discussion Paper 87, Project 94.
South African Law Commission. (2003). Conviction rates and other outcomes of crimes reported in eight South African police areas. Research Paper 18, Project 82 (Sentencing).
South African Press Association. (2006, April 27). Angry mob kill suspected robber in Joburg. Independent online. Available from www.iol.co.za
Sullivan, D., & Tifft, L. (2000). Restorative justice as a transformative process. Voorheesville, NY: Mutual Aid Press.
Templeton, D. (2000, November 8). Mum’s gun horror at hands of gang. The Belfast Telegraph, p. 3.
Thornton, C. (2006, January 26). CRJ cash conditions “must be tightened.” The Belfast Telegraph, p. 2.
Winston, T. (1997). Alternatives to “Punishment” beatings and shootings in a loyalist community in Belfast. Critical Criminology, 8, 122-128.
Zehr, H. (2003). Retributive justice, restorative justice. In G. Johnstone (Ed.), A restorative justice reader (pp. 69-82). Cullompton, UK: Willan.
- Restorative justice
- retributive justice
- postconflict societies