Communities as Constructs of People and Architecture

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 30 Jun 2013

Bibliographical note

Reference text: Boal, F.W. Exclusion and inclusion: Segregation and deprivation in Belfast, in: S. Musterd and W. Ostendorf (Eds) Urban Segregation and the Welfare State, pp. 99-109. London: Routledge, 1998.

Boal, Frederick W. Territoriality on the Shankill-Falls Divide, Belfast. Irish Geography 41 (93): 3349–366. 2008.

Bollens, Scott. Urban Peacebuilding in Divided Socities: Belfast and Johannesburg. Westview Press Inc. 1998.

Bollens, Scott. Urban Peace Building in Divided Societies, Colorado: Westview Press, p.55, 1999.

Calme, J. and Charlesworth, E. Divided Cities: Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar and Nicosia. Philadelphia, PA: university of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Coaffee, J., Murakami Wood, D and Rogers, P. The Everyday Resilience of the City: How Cities Respond to Terrorism and Disaster, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2008.

Community Relations Council. Towards Sustainable Security; Interface Barriers and the Legacy of Segregation in Belfast, 2008. Available at:

Cowan, R. Belfast’s Hidden Planners, Town and Country Planning, 51(6), pp. 163-167, 1982.

Cullen, Gordon. Townscape, London: Architectural Press, 1961.

Dawson, G. Defensive Planning in Belfast, Irish Geography, 17 (1), pp.27-41, 1984.

Department for Social Development, Area Profile of Inner East Belfast Neighbourhood Renewal Area (NRA), 2010. Available at: [Accessed 1 May 2012]

Goodey, B., (1998). The Essex Design Guide Revisited, Town and Country Planning, 67 (5), pp.176-178.

Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City. London: Architectural Press, pp.78 – 101, 1972a.

Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space: Crime Prevention through Urban Design. New York: Macmillan, 1972b.


  • The Troubles
  • Inner-city communities
  • East Belfast
  • Architectural Design
  • Urban Design
  • Contested Space
  • Security
  • Conflict architecture.

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