Communication accommodation in a divided society: Interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland

Owen Hargie

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This paper investigates the impact of religious affiliation on dyadic interactions between university students in Northern Ireland. Despite over 30 years of concerted internecine strife and acute civil violence, few attempts have been made to study the patterns of face-to-face communication between those from the Catholic and Protestant communities when politico-religious identity is made salient. Significant differences were found in strategies of accommodation employed by students during communication with those from the in-group as compared to interactions with out-group members. Dyadic interaction with the in-group was marked by cues identifying group identity, more instances of verbal agreement, protracted topic discussion and convergence. Communication with members of the out-group tended to be characterized by accommodation through discourse management, especially in relation to topic selection appropriate to the religious background of the interactive partner. However, measures of interpersonal attraction failed to demonstrate any significant differences across religion. The implications of these findingsare discussed in terms of the utility of Communication Accommodation Theory as an explanatoryframework for interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages78-85
    JournalStudies in Communication Sciences
    Volume14
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2014

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    interaction pattern
    accommodation
    communication
    Communication
    outgroup
    interaction
    Students
    Group
    denomination
    group membership
    student
    Religion
    violence
    Society
    university
    discourse
    management
    community

    Cite this

    @article{883b9738534e4e42ace8980b011c7044,
    title = "Communication accommodation in a divided society: Interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland",
    abstract = "This paper investigates the impact of religious affiliation on dyadic interactions between university students in Northern Ireland. Despite over 30 years of concerted internecine strife and acute civil violence, few attempts have been made to study the patterns of face-to-face communication between those from the Catholic and Protestant communities when politico-religious identity is made salient. Significant differences were found in strategies of accommodation employed by students during communication with those from the in-group as compared to interactions with out-group members. Dyadic interaction with the in-group was marked by cues identifying group identity, more instances of verbal agreement, protracted topic discussion and convergence. Communication with members of the out-group tended to be characterized by accommodation through discourse management, especially in relation to topic selection appropriate to the religious background of the interactive partner. However, measures of interpersonal attraction failed to demonstrate any significant differences across religion. The implications of these findingsare discussed in terms of the utility of Communication Accommodation Theory as an explanatoryframework for interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.",
    author = "Owen Hargie",
    note = "Reference text: Allen, B. (2011). Difference matters: Communicating social identity (2nd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Bloomer, F. & Weinreich, P. (2004). Cross-community relations projects and interdependent identities. In O. Hargie & D. Dickson (Eds.), Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict. Edinburgh: Mainstream. Borooah, V., & Knox, C. (2013). The contribution of ‘shared education’ to Catholic–Protestant reconciliation in Northern Ireland: A third way? British Educational Research Journal, 39, 925-946. doi: 10.1002/berj.3017 Brown, G. (2010). Workplace Community Relations (WCR) strategies in Northern Ireland: An examination of three case study District Councils. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Liverpool, England. Burgoon, M., & Guerrero, L. (1994). Relational Communication. In M. Burgoon, F. Hunsaker, & E. Dawson (Eds.), Human communication (pp. 277-326). London: Sage Burgoon, M., Stern, L., & Dillman, L. (1995). Interpersonal adaptation: Dyadic patterns. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press. Byrne, D. (1997). An overview (and underview) of research and theory within the attraction paradigm. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14, 417-431. doi: 10.1177/0265407597143008 Cairns, E. (1998). Community relations in universities: Child’s play? In: Report of the NUS–USI Northern Ireland student centre conference, Managing diversity in third level education. Promoting effective community relations strategies in Northern Ireland’s tertiary education sector (pp. 10–11). Belfast, Northern Ireland: NUS–USI Northern Ireland Students Centre. Cairns, E., & Darby, J. (1998). The conflict in Northern Ireland. Causes, consequences, and controls. American Psychologist, 53, 754-760. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.7.754 Cairns, L. (2006) Reinforcement. In O. Hargie (Ed.), The handbook of communication skills (pp. 147-164). London: Routledge. Caris-Verhallen, W., Kerkstra, A., Bensing, J., & Grypdonck, M. (2000). Effects of video interaction analysis training on nurse–patient communication in the care of the elderly. Patient Education and Counseling, 39, 91-103. doi: 10.1016/S0738-3991(99)00094-4 Cochrane, F. (2013). Northern Ireland: The reluctant peace. New Haven: Yale University Press. Connolly, P. (2009). Developing programmes to promote ethnic diversity in early childhood: Lessons from Northern Ireland. Working Paper No. 52. The Hague, The Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from http://www.paulconnolly.net/publications/pdf_files/BvLF_Working_Paper.pdf Coupland, N. (2010). Accommodation theory. In J. Jaspers, J. {\"O}stman & J. Verschueren (Eds.), Society and language use (pp. 21-27). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Dickson, D., & Hargie, O. (2006). Sectarianism in the Northern Ireland workplace. International Journal of Conflict Management, 17, 45-65. doi: 10.1108/10444060610734172 Dickson, D., Hargie, O., & Rainey, S. (2000). Communication and relational development between Catholic and Protestant students in Northern Ireland. Australian Journal of Communication, 27, 67-82. Dickson, D., Hargie, O., & Wilson, N. (2008). Communication, relationships, and religious difference in the Northern Ireland workplace: A study of private and public sector organizations. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 36, 128-160. doi: 10.1080/00909880801922847 Fortman, J. (2003). Adolescent language and communication from an intergroup perspective. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 22, 104-111. doi: 10.1177/0261927X02250061 Dowrick, P., & Biggs, S. (Eds.) (1983). Using video: Psychological and social applications. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Gallois, C., & Callan, V. (1988). Communication accommodation and the prototypical speaker: Predicting evaluations of status and solidarity. Language and Communication, 8, 271-283. doi: 10.1016/0271-5309(88)90022-5 Gallois, D., & Callan, V. (1997). Communication and culture. A guide for practice. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Gallois, C., Ogay, T., & Giles, H. (2006). Communication accommodation theory: A look back and a look ahead. In W. Gudykunst, (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 121-148). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gardner, J., Paulsen, N., Gallois, C., Callan, V., & Monaghan, P. (2001). Communication in organizations: An intergroup perspective. In W. Robinson, and H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 561-584). Chichester: Wiley. Giles, H., & Ogay, T. (2007). Communication accommodation theory. In B. Whaley and W. Samter (Eds.) Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 325-344). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Giles, H., Willemyns, M., Gallois, C. & Anderson, M. (2007). Accommodating a new frontier: The context of law enforcement. In Fiedler, K (Ed.), Social communication (pp. 129-162). New York: Psychology Press. Gudykunst, W., & Hammer, M. (1988). The influence of social identity and intimacy of interethnic relationships on uncertainty reduction processes. Human Communication Research, 14, 569-601. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1988.tb00168.x Hall, S. (1995). Review of the Observer 3.0. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1495-1498. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01679.x Hargie, O. (2011). Skilled interpersonal communication: Research, theory and practice. London: Routledge. Hargie, O., & Dickson, D. (Eds.) (2004). Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict. Edinburgh: Mainstream. Hargie, O. & Dickson, D. (2007). Are important corporate policies understood by employees? A tracking study of organizational information. Journal of Communication Management, 11, 9 – 28. doi: 10.1108/13632540710725969 Hargie, O., Dickson, D., & Hargie, C. (1995). The effects of religious affiliation in Northern Ireland upon levels of self-disclosure of undergraduates. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 5, 173-187. Hargie, O., Dickson, D., & Nelson, S. (2003). Working together in a divided society: A study of inter-group communication in the Northern Ireland workplace. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 17, 285-318. doi: 10.1177/1050651903017003002 Hargie, O., Dickson, D., Mallett, J. & Stringer M. (2008). Communicating social identity: A study of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Communication Research, 35, 792-821. doi: 10.1177/0093650208324270 Hargie, O., O’Donnell, A., & McMullan, C. (2011). Constructions of social exclusion among young people from interface areas of Northern Ireland. Youth & Society, 43, 873-899. doi: 10.1177/0044118X10366950 Harwood, J., Soliz, J., & Lin, M. (2006). Communication accommodation theory: An intergroup approach to family relationships. In D. Braithwaite & L. Baxter (Eds.), Engaging theories in family communication: Multiple perspectives (pp. 19–34). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Hornsey, M., & Gallois, C. (1998). The impact of interpersonal and inter-group communication accommodation on perceptions of Chinese students in Australia. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 17, 323-347. doi: 10.1177/0261927X9801700303 Housing Executive (2011). BRIC - Building Relationships in Communities. Retrieved December 1, 2011, from http://www.nihe.gov.uk/index/community/community_cohesion/bric.htm. Jones, E., Gallois, C., Callan, V., & Barker, M. (1999). Strategies of accommodation: Development of a coding system for conversational interaction. Journal of language and Society, 18, 123-152. doi: 10.1177/0261927X99018002001 Kim, M. (1995). Toward a theory of conversational constraints. Focusing on individual-level dimensions of culture. In R. L. Wiseman (Eds.), Intercultural communication theory (pp. 148-169). London: Sage. Knapp, M., & Hall, J. (1992). Nonverbal communication in human interaction. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Krueger, J., Hall, J., Villano, P., & Jones, M. (2008). Attribution and categorization effects in the representation of gender stereotypes. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11, 401–414. doi: 10.1177/1368430208092542 McCroskey, L., McCroskey, J. & Richmond, V. (2006). Analysis and improvement of the measurement of interpersonal attraction and homophily. Communication Quarterly, 54, 1-31. doi: 10.1080/01463370500270322 Lee, C., & Giles, H. (2008). Attraction in context: How contextual differences in personal and social attraction affect communication accommodation behavior. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, May 22-26, Montreal, Canada. Retrieved December 6, 2011, from http://citation.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/3/4/6/4/pages234641/p234641-1.php. Namy, L., Nygaard, L. & Sauerteig, D. (2002). Gender differences in vocal accommodation: The role of perception. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21, 422-432. doi: 10.1177/026192702237958 Nelson, S., Dickson, D., & Hargie, O. (2003). Learning together, living apart: The experiences of university students in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 16, 777–795. doi: 10.1080/09518390310001632144 Niederhoffer, K. & Pennebaker, J. (2002). Linguistic style matching in social interaction. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21, 337-360. doi: 10.1177/026192702237953 Niens, U., Cairns, E. & Hewstone, M. (2004). Contact and conflict in Northern Ireland. In O. Hargie & D. Dickson (Eds.), Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict (pp. 123-139). Edinburgh: Mainstream. O’Donnell, A. & Hargie, O. (2011). Dealing with the dark side of sectarianism in Northern Irish organisations: Guiding principles on inter-group workplace communication, Australian Journal of Communication, 38, 21-44. Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E., & Voci, A. (2004). Effects of direct and indirect cross-group friendships on judgments of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The mediating role of an anxiety reduction mechanism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 770–786. doi: 10.1177/0146167203262848 Reno, R., & Kenny, D. (1992). Effects of self-consciousness and social anxiety on self-disclosure among unacquainted individuals: An application of the social relations model. Journal of Personality, 60, 79-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00266.x Rozelle, R., Druckman, D., & Baxter, J. (2006). Non-verbal behavior as communication. In O. Hargie (Eds.), The handbook of communication skills (pp. 67-102). London: Routledge. Segrin, C. (1996). The relationship between social skills deficits and psychosocial problems. A test of vulnerability model. Communication Research, 23, 4, 425-450. doi: 10.1177/009365096023004005 Shepard, C., Giles, H., & Le Poire, B. (2001). Communication Accommodation Theory. In W. P. Robinson & H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (p33-56). Chichester: Wiley. Smyth, M., & Hamilton, J. (2004). The human costs of the troubles. In O. Hargie & D. Dickson (Eds.), Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict (pp. 15-36). Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream Press. Somerville, I., Purcell, A., & Morrison, F. (2011). Public relations education in a divided society: PR, terrorism and critical pedagogy in post-conflict Northern Ireland. Public Relations Review, 37, 548– 555. Stevenson, C., Condor, S., & Abell, J. (2007). The minority-majority conundrum in Northern Ireland: An orange order perspective. Political Psychology, 28, 105-125. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2007.00554.x Stringer, M., & Irwing, P. (1998). Intergroup relationship rules in Northern Ireland: The effect of denominational information on children’s ratings. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15, 421-430. doi: 10.1177/0265407598153007 Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity of inter-group behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin, (Eds.), Psychology of inter-group relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers. Tong, Y., Lee, S., & Chiu, C. (1999). Language as a carrier of social identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 281-296. doi: 10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00039-X Werner-Wilson, R., Price, S., Zimmerman, T. S., & Murphy, M. (1997). Client gender as a process variable in marriage and family therapy: Are women clients interrupted more than men clients? Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 373-377. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.11.3.373 West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1983). Small insult: A study of interruptions in cross-sex conversations between unacquainted persons. In B. Thorne, C. Kramarae & N. Henley (Eds.), Language, gender and society (pp. 102-117). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Willemyns, M., Gallois, C., Callan, V., & Pittam, J. (1997). Accent accommodation in the job interview. Impact of interviewer accent and gender. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16, 3-22. doi: 10.1177/0261927X970161001 Willemyns, M., Hosie, P., & Lehaney, B. (2011). Communication and social identity dynamics in UAE organizations, International Review of Business Research Papers, 7, 245 – 256. Williams, A. (1999). Communication Accommodation Theory and miscommunication: Issues of awareness and communication dilemmas. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9, 151-165. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-4192.1999.tb00169.x",
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    Communication accommodation in a divided society: Interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland. / Hargie, Owen.

    In: Studies in Communication Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 1, 06.2014, p. 78-85.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Communication accommodation in a divided society: Interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland

    AU - Hargie, Owen

    N1 - Reference text: Allen, B. (2011). Difference matters: Communicating social identity (2nd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Bloomer, F. & Weinreich, P. (2004). Cross-community relations projects and interdependent identities. In O. Hargie & D. Dickson (Eds.), Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict. Edinburgh: Mainstream. Borooah, V., & Knox, C. (2013). The contribution of ‘shared education’ to Catholic–Protestant reconciliation in Northern Ireland: A third way? British Educational Research Journal, 39, 925-946. doi: 10.1002/berj.3017 Brown, G. (2010). Workplace Community Relations (WCR) strategies in Northern Ireland: An examination of three case study District Councils. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Liverpool, England. Burgoon, M., & Guerrero, L. (1994). Relational Communication. In M. Burgoon, F. Hunsaker, & E. Dawson (Eds.), Human communication (pp. 277-326). London: Sage Burgoon, M., Stern, L., & Dillman, L. (1995). Interpersonal adaptation: Dyadic patterns. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press. Byrne, D. (1997). An overview (and underview) of research and theory within the attraction paradigm. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14, 417-431. doi: 10.1177/0265407597143008 Cairns, E. (1998). Community relations in universities: Child’s play? In: Report of the NUS–USI Northern Ireland student centre conference, Managing diversity in third level education. Promoting effective community relations strategies in Northern Ireland’s tertiary education sector (pp. 10–11). Belfast, Northern Ireland: NUS–USI Northern Ireland Students Centre. Cairns, E., & Darby, J. (1998). The conflict in Northern Ireland. Causes, consequences, and controls. American Psychologist, 53, 754-760. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.7.754 Cairns, L. (2006) Reinforcement. In O. Hargie (Ed.), The handbook of communication skills (pp. 147-164). London: Routledge. Caris-Verhallen, W., Kerkstra, A., Bensing, J., & Grypdonck, M. (2000). Effects of video interaction analysis training on nurse–patient communication in the care of the elderly. Patient Education and Counseling, 39, 91-103. doi: 10.1016/S0738-3991(99)00094-4 Cochrane, F. (2013). Northern Ireland: The reluctant peace. New Haven: Yale University Press. Connolly, P. (2009). Developing programmes to promote ethnic diversity in early childhood: Lessons from Northern Ireland. Working Paper No. 52. The Hague, The Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from http://www.paulconnolly.net/publications/pdf_files/BvLF_Working_Paper.pdf Coupland, N. (2010). Accommodation theory. In J. Jaspers, J. Östman & J. Verschueren (Eds.), Society and language use (pp. 21-27). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Dickson, D., & Hargie, O. (2006). Sectarianism in the Northern Ireland workplace. International Journal of Conflict Management, 17, 45-65. doi: 10.1108/10444060610734172 Dickson, D., Hargie, O., & Rainey, S. (2000). Communication and relational development between Catholic and Protestant students in Northern Ireland. Australian Journal of Communication, 27, 67-82. Dickson, D., Hargie, O., & Wilson, N. (2008). Communication, relationships, and religious difference in the Northern Ireland workplace: A study of private and public sector organizations. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 36, 128-160. doi: 10.1080/00909880801922847 Fortman, J. (2003). Adolescent language and communication from an intergroup perspective. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 22, 104-111. doi: 10.1177/0261927X02250061 Dowrick, P., & Biggs, S. (Eds.) (1983). Using video: Psychological and social applications. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Gallois, C., & Callan, V. (1988). Communication accommodation and the prototypical speaker: Predicting evaluations of status and solidarity. Language and Communication, 8, 271-283. doi: 10.1016/0271-5309(88)90022-5 Gallois, D., & Callan, V. (1997). Communication and culture. A guide for practice. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Gallois, C., Ogay, T., & Giles, H. (2006). Communication accommodation theory: A look back and a look ahead. In W. Gudykunst, (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 121-148). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gardner, J., Paulsen, N., Gallois, C., Callan, V., & Monaghan, P. (2001). Communication in organizations: An intergroup perspective. In W. Robinson, and H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 561-584). Chichester: Wiley. Giles, H., & Ogay, T. (2007). Communication accommodation theory. In B. Whaley and W. Samter (Eds.) Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 325-344). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Giles, H., Willemyns, M., Gallois, C. & Anderson, M. (2007). Accommodating a new frontier: The context of law enforcement. In Fiedler, K (Ed.), Social communication (pp. 129-162). New York: Psychology Press. Gudykunst, W., & Hammer, M. (1988). The influence of social identity and intimacy of interethnic relationships on uncertainty reduction processes. Human Communication Research, 14, 569-601. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1988.tb00168.x Hall, S. (1995). Review of the Observer 3.0. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1495-1498. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01679.x Hargie, O. (2011). Skilled interpersonal communication: Research, theory and practice. London: Routledge. Hargie, O., & Dickson, D. (Eds.) (2004). Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict. Edinburgh: Mainstream. Hargie, O. & Dickson, D. (2007). Are important corporate policies understood by employees? A tracking study of organizational information. Journal of Communication Management, 11, 9 – 28. doi: 10.1108/13632540710725969 Hargie, O., Dickson, D., & Hargie, C. (1995). The effects of religious affiliation in Northern Ireland upon levels of self-disclosure of undergraduates. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 5, 173-187. Hargie, O., Dickson, D., & Nelson, S. (2003). Working together in a divided society: A study of inter-group communication in the Northern Ireland workplace. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 17, 285-318. doi: 10.1177/1050651903017003002 Hargie, O., Dickson, D., Mallett, J. & Stringer M. (2008). Communicating social identity: A study of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Communication Research, 35, 792-821. doi: 10.1177/0093650208324270 Hargie, O., O’Donnell, A., & McMullan, C. (2011). Constructions of social exclusion among young people from interface areas of Northern Ireland. Youth & Society, 43, 873-899. doi: 10.1177/0044118X10366950 Harwood, J., Soliz, J., & Lin, M. (2006). Communication accommodation theory: An intergroup approach to family relationships. In D. Braithwaite & L. Baxter (Eds.), Engaging theories in family communication: Multiple perspectives (pp. 19–34). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Hornsey, M., & Gallois, C. (1998). The impact of interpersonal and inter-group communication accommodation on perceptions of Chinese students in Australia. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 17, 323-347. doi: 10.1177/0261927X9801700303 Housing Executive (2011). BRIC - Building Relationships in Communities. Retrieved December 1, 2011, from http://www.nihe.gov.uk/index/community/community_cohesion/bric.htm. Jones, E., Gallois, C., Callan, V., & Barker, M. (1999). Strategies of accommodation: Development of a coding system for conversational interaction. Journal of language and Society, 18, 123-152. doi: 10.1177/0261927X99018002001 Kim, M. (1995). Toward a theory of conversational constraints. Focusing on individual-level dimensions of culture. In R. L. Wiseman (Eds.), Intercultural communication theory (pp. 148-169). London: Sage. Knapp, M., & Hall, J. (1992). Nonverbal communication in human interaction. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Krueger, J., Hall, J., Villano, P., & Jones, M. (2008). Attribution and categorization effects in the representation of gender stereotypes. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11, 401–414. doi: 10.1177/1368430208092542 McCroskey, L., McCroskey, J. & Richmond, V. (2006). Analysis and improvement of the measurement of interpersonal attraction and homophily. Communication Quarterly, 54, 1-31. doi: 10.1080/01463370500270322 Lee, C., & Giles, H. (2008). Attraction in context: How contextual differences in personal and social attraction affect communication accommodation behavior. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, May 22-26, Montreal, Canada. Retrieved December 6, 2011, from http://citation.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/3/4/6/4/pages234641/p234641-1.php. Namy, L., Nygaard, L. & Sauerteig, D. (2002). Gender differences in vocal accommodation: The role of perception. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21, 422-432. doi: 10.1177/026192702237958 Nelson, S., Dickson, D., & Hargie, O. (2003). Learning together, living apart: The experiences of university students in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 16, 777–795. doi: 10.1080/09518390310001632144 Niederhoffer, K. & Pennebaker, J. (2002). Linguistic style matching in social interaction. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21, 337-360. doi: 10.1177/026192702237953 Niens, U., Cairns, E. & Hewstone, M. (2004). Contact and conflict in Northern Ireland. In O. Hargie & D. Dickson (Eds.), Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict (pp. 123-139). Edinburgh: Mainstream. O’Donnell, A. & Hargie, O. (2011). Dealing with the dark side of sectarianism in Northern Irish organisations: Guiding principles on inter-group workplace communication, Australian Journal of Communication, 38, 21-44. Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E., & Voci, A. (2004). Effects of direct and indirect cross-group friendships on judgments of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The mediating role of an anxiety reduction mechanism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 770–786. doi: 10.1177/0146167203262848 Reno, R., & Kenny, D. (1992). Effects of self-consciousness and social anxiety on self-disclosure among unacquainted individuals: An application of the social relations model. Journal of Personality, 60, 79-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00266.x Rozelle, R., Druckman, D., & Baxter, J. (2006). Non-verbal behavior as communication. In O. Hargie (Eds.), The handbook of communication skills (pp. 67-102). London: Routledge. Segrin, C. (1996). The relationship between social skills deficits and psychosocial problems. A test of vulnerability model. Communication Research, 23, 4, 425-450. doi: 10.1177/009365096023004005 Shepard, C., Giles, H., & Le Poire, B. (2001). Communication Accommodation Theory. In W. P. Robinson & H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (p33-56). Chichester: Wiley. Smyth, M., & Hamilton, J. (2004). The human costs of the troubles. In O. Hargie & D. Dickson (Eds.), Researching the troubles: Social science perspectives on the Northern Ireland conflict (pp. 15-36). Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream Press. Somerville, I., Purcell, A., & Morrison, F. (2011). Public relations education in a divided society: PR, terrorism and critical pedagogy in post-conflict Northern Ireland. Public Relations Review, 37, 548– 555. Stevenson, C., Condor, S., & Abell, J. (2007). The minority-majority conundrum in Northern Ireland: An orange order perspective. Political Psychology, 28, 105-125. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2007.00554.x Stringer, M., & Irwing, P. (1998). Intergroup relationship rules in Northern Ireland: The effect of denominational information on children’s ratings. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15, 421-430. doi: 10.1177/0265407598153007 Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity of inter-group behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin, (Eds.), Psychology of inter-group relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers. Tong, Y., Lee, S., & Chiu, C. (1999). Language as a carrier of social identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 281-296. doi: 10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00039-X Werner-Wilson, R., Price, S., Zimmerman, T. S., & Murphy, M. (1997). Client gender as a process variable in marriage and family therapy: Are women clients interrupted more than men clients? Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 373-377. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.11.3.373 West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1983). 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    PY - 2014/6

    Y1 - 2014/6

    N2 - This paper investigates the impact of religious affiliation on dyadic interactions between university students in Northern Ireland. Despite over 30 years of concerted internecine strife and acute civil violence, few attempts have been made to study the patterns of face-to-face communication between those from the Catholic and Protestant communities when politico-religious identity is made salient. Significant differences were found in strategies of accommodation employed by students during communication with those from the in-group as compared to interactions with out-group members. Dyadic interaction with the in-group was marked by cues identifying group identity, more instances of verbal agreement, protracted topic discussion and convergence. Communication with members of the out-group tended to be characterized by accommodation through discourse management, especially in relation to topic selection appropriate to the religious background of the interactive partner. However, measures of interpersonal attraction failed to demonstrate any significant differences across religion. The implications of these findingsare discussed in terms of the utility of Communication Accommodation Theory as an explanatoryframework for interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.

    AB - This paper investigates the impact of religious affiliation on dyadic interactions between university students in Northern Ireland. Despite over 30 years of concerted internecine strife and acute civil violence, few attempts have been made to study the patterns of face-to-face communication between those from the Catholic and Protestant communities when politico-religious identity is made salient. Significant differences were found in strategies of accommodation employed by students during communication with those from the in-group as compared to interactions with out-group members. Dyadic interaction with the in-group was marked by cues identifying group identity, more instances of verbal agreement, protracted topic discussion and convergence. Communication with members of the out-group tended to be characterized by accommodation through discourse management, especially in relation to topic selection appropriate to the religious background of the interactive partner. However, measures of interpersonal attraction failed to demonstrate any significant differences across religion. The implications of these findingsare discussed in terms of the utility of Communication Accommodation Theory as an explanatoryframework for interaction patterns between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.scoms.2014.03.005

    DO - 10.1016/j.scoms.2014.03.005

    M3 - Article

    VL - 14

    SP - 78

    EP - 85

    JO - Studies in Communication Sciences

    T2 - Studies in Communication Sciences

    JF - Studies in Communication Sciences

    SN - 1424-4896

    IS - 1

    ER -