Colorimetric analysis of protein sulfhydyl groups in milk: Applications and processing effects

Richard Owusu-Apenten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Methods for protein sulfhydryl (SH) group analysis in food systems have been largely overlooked. Nevertheless, changes in SH group concentration affect both physical and nutritional characteristics of high protein foods and ingredients. Food scientists and technologists require improved understanding of protein SH chemistry in order to design processes that minimize loss of thiol groups. This article surveys colorimetric methods for food protein SH group analysis with applications to fluid milk and dried milk powder Most colorimetric assays (chloromeribenzoate, pyridine disulfide, Nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, papain reactivation assay, etc.) were found to be inferior to the Ellman method based on the use of 5,5'dithio (bis-2 nitro benzoic acid). Techniques for SH group analysis in fluid milk and dried milk powder are described, along with typical results, their interpretations, and current research related to processing effects and the role of milk SH content on a wider range of technological issues, such as development of cooked flavors, fouling and cleaning of plate heat exchanges, protein-protein interactions, and the storage stability. Finally, a number of areas requiring further research are presented.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-23
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Fingerprint

Milk
Proteins
Food
Powders
Food Analysis
Benzoic Acid
Papain
Research
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Disulfides
Hot Temperature

Keywords

  • HEAT-INDUCED AGGREGATION
  • DISULFIDE INTERCHANGE REACTIONS
  • NATIVE BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN
  • STAINLESS-STEEL SURFACES
  • BOVINE SERUM-ALBUMIN
  • STYLE NONFAT YOGURT
  • WHEY PROTEINS
  • KAPPA-CASEIN
  • SKIM MILK
  • WHOLE MILK

Cite this

@article{3288b66836d949d584d0fcc98f8336ee,
title = "Colorimetric analysis of protein sulfhydyl groups in milk: Applications and processing effects",
abstract = "Methods for protein sulfhydryl (SH) group analysis in food systems have been largely overlooked. Nevertheless, changes in SH group concentration affect both physical and nutritional characteristics of high protein foods and ingredients. Food scientists and technologists require improved understanding of protein SH chemistry in order to design processes that minimize loss of thiol groups. This article surveys colorimetric methods for food protein SH group analysis with applications to fluid milk and dried milk powder Most colorimetric assays (chloromeribenzoate, pyridine disulfide, Nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, papain reactivation assay, etc.) were found to be inferior to the Ellman method based on the use of 5,5'dithio (bis-2 nitro benzoic acid). Techniques for SH group analysis in fluid milk and dried milk powder are described, along with typical results, their interpretations, and current research related to processing effects and the role of milk SH content on a wider range of technological issues, such as development of cooked flavors, fouling and cleaning of plate heat exchanges, protein-protein interactions, and the storage stability. Finally, a number of areas requiring further research are presented.",
keywords = "HEAT-INDUCED AGGREGATION, DISULFIDE INTERCHANGE REACTIONS, NATIVE BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN, STAINLESS-STEEL SURFACES, BOVINE SERUM-ALBUMIN, STYLE NONFAT YOGURT, WHEY PROTEINS, KAPPA-CASEIN, SKIM MILK, WHOLE MILK",
author = "Richard Owusu-Apenten",
note = "Reference text: AKINYELE AF Use of 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole for determining cysteine and cystine in cereal and legume seeds JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 47 : 2303 1999 3. ANDERSSON I SENSORY CHANGES AND FREE SH-GROUPS IN UHT MILK MILCHWISSENSCHAFT-MILK SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL 47 : 438 1992 4. ANDREWS DC SULFHYDRYL ANALYSIS .1. DETERMINATION OF FREE SULFHYDRYLS IN WHEAT-FLOUR DOUGHS CEREAL CHEMISTRY 72 : 326 1995 5. ANEMA SG Effect of milk concentration on the irreversible thermal denaturation and disulfide aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 48 : 4168 2000 6. AOKI T INFLUENCE OF 2-MERCAPTOETHANOL ON HEAT-STABILITY OF CONCENTRATED WHEY-PROTEIN-FREE MILK AND FORMATION OF SOLUBLE CASEIN JOURNAL OF DAIRY RESEARCH 51 : 439 1984 7. APENTEN RKO Is the rate of sulfur-disulfide exchange between the native beta-Lactoglobulin and PDS related to protein conformational stability? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 34 : 483 1999 8. APENTEN RKO Protein stability function relations: native beta-lactoglobulin sulphhydryl-disulphide exchange with PDS JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 80 : 447 2000 9. AREAS JAG EXTRUSION OF FOOD PROTEINS CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 32 : 365 1992 10. ARNEBRANT T ADSORPTION OF ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN AND BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN ON METAL-SURFACES VERSUS TEMPERATURE JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 119 : 383 1987 11. ASHWORTH US CHEMICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE BAKING QUALITY OF NONFAT MILK SOLIDS .4. MINIMUM HEAT TREATMENT FOR MAXIMUM LOAF VOLUME CEREAL CHEMISTRY 28 : 145 1951 12. BADINGS HT REDUCTION OF COOKED FLAVOR IN HEATED MILK AND MILK-PRODUCTS BY L-CYSTINE LEBENSMITTEL-WISSENSCHAFT & TECHNOLOGIE 11 : 237 1978 13. BALDWIN AJ EFFECT OF PREHEAT TREATMENT AND STORAGE ON THE PROPERTIES OF WHOLE MILK POWDER - CHANGES IN SENSORY PROPERTIES NETHERLANDS MILK AND DAIRY JOURNAL 45 : 97 1991 14. BALDWIN AJ EFFECT OF PREHEAT TREATMENT AND STORAGE ON THE PROPERTIES OF WHOLE MILK POWDER - CHANGES IN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL-PROPERTIES NETHERLANDS MILK AND DAIRY JOURNAL 45 : 169 1991 15. BASSETTE R CRIT REV FOOD SCI NU 24 : 1 1994 16. BEVERIDGE T DETERMINATION OF SH-GROUPS AND SS-GROUPS IN SOME FOOD PROTEINS USING ELLMANS REAGENT JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE 39 : 49 1974 17. BIRKETT DJ REACTIVITY OF SH GROUPS WITH A FLUOROGENIC REAGENT FEBS LETTERS 6 : 346 1970 18. BOUNOUS G Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment ANTICANCER RESEARCH 20 : 4785 2000 19. BOUNOUS G WHEY PROTEINS IN CANCER PREVENTION CANCER LETTERS 57 : 91 1991 20. BOYD EN J DAIRY SCI 40 : 1294 1955 21. BOYER PD SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE REACTION OF PROTEIN SULFHYDRYL GROUPS WITH ORGANIC MERCURIALS JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 76 : 4331 1954 22. BOYNE AF METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSIS OF TISSUE SULFHYDRYL COMPONENTS ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 46 : 639 1972 23. BROWN WD REDUCTION OF PROTEIN DISULFIDE BONDS BY SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA 44 : 365 1960 24. BUERKI C 20 INT DAIR C E 1978 287 25. BULAJ G Ionization-reactivity relationships for cysteine thiols in polypeptides BIOCHEMISTRY 37 : 8965 1998 26. BURLINGAME AL ANAL CHEM 68 : 599 1996 27. BURTON H REVIEWS OF PROGRESS OF DAIRY SCIENCE - SECTION G DEPSOSITS FROM WHOLE MILK IN HEAT TREATMENTPLANT- A REVIEW AND DISCUSSION JOURNAL OF DAIRY RESEARCH 35 : 317 1968 28. BUTTERWORTH PHW A MODIFICATION OF ELLMAN PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATION OF PROTEIN SULFHYDRYL GROUPS ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS 118 : 716 1967 29. CALVO MM HEAT-INDUCED INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SERUM-ALBUMIN, IMMUNOGLOBULIN, AND KAPPA-CASEIN INHIBIT THE PRIMARY PHASE OF RENNETING JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 43 : 2823 1995 30. CARBONARO M Disulfide reactivity and in vitro protein digestibility of different thermal-treated milk samples and whey proteins JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 45 : 95 1997 (abridged)",
year = "2005",
doi = "10.1080/10408690590900126",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "1--23",
journal = "Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition",
issn = "1040-8398",
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}

Colorimetric analysis of protein sulfhydyl groups in milk: Applications and processing effects. / Owusu-Apenten, Richard.

In: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2005, p. 1-23.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Colorimetric analysis of protein sulfhydyl groups in milk: Applications and processing effects

AU - Owusu-Apenten, Richard

N1 - Reference text: AKINYELE AF Use of 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole for determining cysteine and cystine in cereal and legume seeds JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 47 : 2303 1999 3. ANDERSSON I SENSORY CHANGES AND FREE SH-GROUPS IN UHT MILK MILCHWISSENSCHAFT-MILK SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL 47 : 438 1992 4. ANDREWS DC SULFHYDRYL ANALYSIS .1. DETERMINATION OF FREE SULFHYDRYLS IN WHEAT-FLOUR DOUGHS CEREAL CHEMISTRY 72 : 326 1995 5. ANEMA SG Effect of milk concentration on the irreversible thermal denaturation and disulfide aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 48 : 4168 2000 6. AOKI T INFLUENCE OF 2-MERCAPTOETHANOL ON HEAT-STABILITY OF CONCENTRATED WHEY-PROTEIN-FREE MILK AND FORMATION OF SOLUBLE CASEIN JOURNAL OF DAIRY RESEARCH 51 : 439 1984 7. APENTEN RKO Is the rate of sulfur-disulfide exchange between the native beta-Lactoglobulin and PDS related to protein conformational stability? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 34 : 483 1999 8. APENTEN RKO Protein stability function relations: native beta-lactoglobulin sulphhydryl-disulphide exchange with PDS JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 80 : 447 2000 9. AREAS JAG EXTRUSION OF FOOD PROTEINS CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 32 : 365 1992 10. ARNEBRANT T ADSORPTION OF ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN AND BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN ON METAL-SURFACES VERSUS TEMPERATURE JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 119 : 383 1987 11. ASHWORTH US CHEMICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE BAKING QUALITY OF NONFAT MILK SOLIDS .4. MINIMUM HEAT TREATMENT FOR MAXIMUM LOAF VOLUME CEREAL CHEMISTRY 28 : 145 1951 12. BADINGS HT REDUCTION OF COOKED FLAVOR IN HEATED MILK AND MILK-PRODUCTS BY L-CYSTINE LEBENSMITTEL-WISSENSCHAFT & TECHNOLOGIE 11 : 237 1978 13. BALDWIN AJ EFFECT OF PREHEAT TREATMENT AND STORAGE ON THE PROPERTIES OF WHOLE MILK POWDER - CHANGES IN SENSORY PROPERTIES NETHERLANDS MILK AND DAIRY JOURNAL 45 : 97 1991 14. BALDWIN AJ EFFECT OF PREHEAT TREATMENT AND STORAGE ON THE PROPERTIES OF WHOLE MILK POWDER - CHANGES IN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL-PROPERTIES NETHERLANDS MILK AND DAIRY JOURNAL 45 : 169 1991 15. BASSETTE R CRIT REV FOOD SCI NU 24 : 1 1994 16. BEVERIDGE T DETERMINATION OF SH-GROUPS AND SS-GROUPS IN SOME FOOD PROTEINS USING ELLMANS REAGENT JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE 39 : 49 1974 17. BIRKETT DJ REACTIVITY OF SH GROUPS WITH A FLUOROGENIC REAGENT FEBS LETTERS 6 : 346 1970 18. BOUNOUS G Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment ANTICANCER RESEARCH 20 : 4785 2000 19. BOUNOUS G WHEY PROTEINS IN CANCER PREVENTION CANCER LETTERS 57 : 91 1991 20. BOYD EN J DAIRY SCI 40 : 1294 1955 21. BOYER PD SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE REACTION OF PROTEIN SULFHYDRYL GROUPS WITH ORGANIC MERCURIALS JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 76 : 4331 1954 22. BOYNE AF METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSIS OF TISSUE SULFHYDRYL COMPONENTS ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 46 : 639 1972 23. BROWN WD REDUCTION OF PROTEIN DISULFIDE BONDS BY SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA 44 : 365 1960 24. BUERKI C 20 INT DAIR C E 1978 287 25. BULAJ G Ionization-reactivity relationships for cysteine thiols in polypeptides BIOCHEMISTRY 37 : 8965 1998 26. BURLINGAME AL ANAL CHEM 68 : 599 1996 27. BURTON H REVIEWS OF PROGRESS OF DAIRY SCIENCE - SECTION G DEPSOSITS FROM WHOLE MILK IN HEAT TREATMENTPLANT- A REVIEW AND DISCUSSION JOURNAL OF DAIRY RESEARCH 35 : 317 1968 28. BUTTERWORTH PHW A MODIFICATION OF ELLMAN PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATION OF PROTEIN SULFHYDRYL GROUPS ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS 118 : 716 1967 29. CALVO MM HEAT-INDUCED INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SERUM-ALBUMIN, IMMUNOGLOBULIN, AND KAPPA-CASEIN INHIBIT THE PRIMARY PHASE OF RENNETING JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 43 : 2823 1995 30. CARBONARO M Disulfide reactivity and in vitro protein digestibility of different thermal-treated milk samples and whey proteins JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 45 : 95 1997 (abridged)

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - Methods for protein sulfhydryl (SH) group analysis in food systems have been largely overlooked. Nevertheless, changes in SH group concentration affect both physical and nutritional characteristics of high protein foods and ingredients. Food scientists and technologists require improved understanding of protein SH chemistry in order to design processes that minimize loss of thiol groups. This article surveys colorimetric methods for food protein SH group analysis with applications to fluid milk and dried milk powder Most colorimetric assays (chloromeribenzoate, pyridine disulfide, Nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, papain reactivation assay, etc.) were found to be inferior to the Ellman method based on the use of 5,5'dithio (bis-2 nitro benzoic acid). Techniques for SH group analysis in fluid milk and dried milk powder are described, along with typical results, their interpretations, and current research related to processing effects and the role of milk SH content on a wider range of technological issues, such as development of cooked flavors, fouling and cleaning of plate heat exchanges, protein-protein interactions, and the storage stability. Finally, a number of areas requiring further research are presented.

AB - Methods for protein sulfhydryl (SH) group analysis in food systems have been largely overlooked. Nevertheless, changes in SH group concentration affect both physical and nutritional characteristics of high protein foods and ingredients. Food scientists and technologists require improved understanding of protein SH chemistry in order to design processes that minimize loss of thiol groups. This article surveys colorimetric methods for food protein SH group analysis with applications to fluid milk and dried milk powder Most colorimetric assays (chloromeribenzoate, pyridine disulfide, Nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, papain reactivation assay, etc.) were found to be inferior to the Ellman method based on the use of 5,5'dithio (bis-2 nitro benzoic acid). Techniques for SH group analysis in fluid milk and dried milk powder are described, along with typical results, their interpretations, and current research related to processing effects and the role of milk SH content on a wider range of technological issues, such as development of cooked flavors, fouling and cleaning of plate heat exchanges, protein-protein interactions, and the storage stability. Finally, a number of areas requiring further research are presented.

KW - HEAT-INDUCED AGGREGATION

KW - DISULFIDE INTERCHANGE REACTIONS

KW - NATIVE BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN

KW - STAINLESS-STEEL SURFACES

KW - BOVINE SERUM-ALBUMIN

KW - STYLE NONFAT YOGURT

KW - WHEY PROTEINS

KW - KAPPA-CASEIN

KW - SKIM MILK

KW - WHOLE MILK

U2 - 10.1080/10408690590900126

DO - 10.1080/10408690590900126

M3 - Article

VL - 45

SP - 1

EP - 23

JO - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

T2 - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

JF - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

SN - 1040-8398

IS - 1

ER -