Cold water immersion improves recovery of sprint speed following a simulated tournament

Jonathan D C Leeder, Matthew Godfrey, Daniel Gibbon, David Gaze, Gareth Davison, Ken A van Someren, Glyn Howatson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

It is a common requirement in tournament scenarios for athletes to compete multiple times in a relatively short time period, with insufficient recovery time not allowing full restoration of physical performance. This study aimed to develop a greater understanding of the physiological stress experienced by athletes in a tournament scenario, and how a commonly used recovery strategy, cold water immersion (CWI), might influence these markers. Twenty-one trained male games players (age 19 ± 2; body mass 78.0 ± 8.8 kg) were randomised into a CWI group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 10). To simulate a tournament, participants completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on three occasions in five days. Recovery was assessed at specific time points using markers of sprint performance, muscle function, muscle soreness and biochemical markers of damage (creatine kinase, CK), inflammation (IL-6 and C-Reactive Protein) and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides and activity of 6 lipid-soluble antioxidants). The simulated tournament was associated with perturbations in some, but not all, markers of physiological stress and recovery. Cold water immersion was associated with improved recovery of sprint speed 24 h after the final LIST (ES = 0.83 ± 0.59; p =.034) and attenuated the efflux of CK pre- and post-LIST 3 (p <.01). The tournament scenario resulted in an escalation of physiological stress that, in the main, cold water immersion was ineffective at managing. These data suggest that CWI is not harmful, and provides limited benefits in attenuating the deleterious effects experienced during tournament scenarios.

LanguageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

Immersion
Physiological Stress
Water
Creatine Kinase
Athletes
Lipid Peroxides
Myalgia
C-Reactive Protein
Interleukin-6
Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants
Biomarkers
Inflammation
Lipids
Muscles
Control Groups

Keywords

  • Muscle damage
  • recovery
  • strenuous exercise
  • athletes

Cite this

Leeder, Jonathan D C ; Godfrey, Matthew ; Gibbon, Daniel ; Gaze, David ; Davison, Gareth ; van Someren, Ken A ; Howatson, Glyn. / Cold water immersion improves recovery of sprint speed following a simulated tournament. In: European Journal of Sport Science. 2019.
@article{4ce81290f07e44af820443abc2ddfb98,
title = "Cold water immersion improves recovery of sprint speed following a simulated tournament",
abstract = "It is a common requirement in tournament scenarios for athletes to compete multiple times in a relatively short time period, with insufficient recovery time not allowing full restoration of physical performance. This study aimed to develop a greater understanding of the physiological stress experienced by athletes in a tournament scenario, and how a commonly used recovery strategy, cold water immersion (CWI), might influence these markers. Twenty-one trained male games players (age 19 ± 2; body mass 78.0 ± 8.8 kg) were randomised into a CWI group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 10). To simulate a tournament, participants completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on three occasions in five days. Recovery was assessed at specific time points using markers of sprint performance, muscle function, muscle soreness and biochemical markers of damage (creatine kinase, CK), inflammation (IL-6 and C-Reactive Protein) and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides and activity of 6 lipid-soluble antioxidants). The simulated tournament was associated with perturbations in some, but not all, markers of physiological stress and recovery. Cold water immersion was associated with improved recovery of sprint speed 24 h after the final LIST (ES = 0.83 ± 0.59; p =.034) and attenuated the efflux of CK pre- and post-LIST 3 (p <.01). The tournament scenario resulted in an escalation of physiological stress that, in the main, cold water immersion was ineffective at managing. These data suggest that CWI is not harmful, and provides limited benefits in attenuating the deleterious effects experienced during tournament scenarios.",
keywords = "Muscle damage, recovery, strenuous exercise, athletes",
author = "Leeder, {Jonathan D C} and Matthew Godfrey and Daniel Gibbon and David Gaze and Gareth Davison and {van Someren}, {Ken A} and Glyn Howatson",
note = "Bailey, D. M., Erith, S. J., Griffin, P. J., Dowson, A., Brewer, D. S., Gant, N., & Williams, C. (2007). Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(11), 1163–1170. doi: 10.1080/02640410600982659[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Batterham, A. M., & Hopkins, W. G. (2006). Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(1), 50–57. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.1.1.50[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Beedie, C. J., & Foad, A. J. (2009). The placebo effect in sports performance: A brief review. Sports Medicine, 39(4), 313–329. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200939040-00004[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Bell, P. G., Stevenson, E., Davison, G. W., & Howatson, G. (2016). The effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise. Nutrients, 8(7). doi: 10.3390/nu8070441[Crossref], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Bleakley, C., McDonough, S., Gardner, E., Baxter, G. D., Hopkins, J. T., & Davison, G. W. (2012). Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD008262. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008262.pub2[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Broatch, J. R., Petersen, A., & Bishop, D. J. (2014). Postexercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo effect. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(11), 2139–2147. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000348[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Catignani, G. L., & Bieri, J. G. (1983). Simultaneous determination of retinol and alpha-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography. Clinical Chemistry, 29(4), 708–712.[PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Cook, C. J., & Beaven, C. M. (2013). Individual perception of recovery is related to subsequent sprint performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(11), 705–709. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091647[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Corbett, J., Barwood, M. J., Lunt, H. C., Milner, A., & Tipton, M. J. (2012). Water immersion as a recovery aid from intermittent shuttle running exercise. European Journal of Sport Science, 12, 509–514. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2011.570380[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Davison, G. W., George, L., Jackson, S. K., Young, I. S., Davies, B., Bailey, D. M., … Ashton, T. (2002). Exercise, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 33(11), 1543–1551. doi: 10.1016/S0891-5849(02)01090-0[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Eston, R., & Peters, D. (1999). Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(3), 231–238. doi: 10.1080/026404199366136[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Friden, J., & Lieber, R. L. (2001). Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 171(3), 321–326. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00834.x[Crossref], [PubMed], , [Google Scholar] Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(1), 3–13. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Howatson, G., & van Someren, K. A. (2008). The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Medicine, 38(6), 483–503. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200838060-00004[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Ingram, J., Dawson, B., Goodman, C., Wallman, K., & Beilby, J. (2009). Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(3), 417–421. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2007.12.011[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Leeder, J., Gissane, C., van Someren, K., Gregson, W., & Howatson, G. (2012). Cold water immersion and recovery from strenuous exercise: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(4), 233–240. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090061[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Leeder, J., van Someren, K. A., Bell, P. G., Spence, J. R., Jewell, A. P., Gaze, D., & Howatson, G. (2015). Effects of seated and standing cold water immersion on recovery from repeated sprinting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(15), 1544–1552. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2014.996914[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Leeder, J., van Someren, K. A., Gaze, D., Jewell, A., Deshmukh, N. I., Shah, I., … Howatson, G. (2014). Recovery and adaptation from repeated intermittent-sprint exercise. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9(3), 489–496. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2012-0316[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Montgomery, P. G., Pyne, D. B., Hopkins, W. G., Dorman, J. C., Cook, K., & Minahan, C. L. (2008). The effect of recovery strategies on physical performance and cumulative fatigue in competitive basketball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(11), 1135–1145. doi: 10.1080/02640410802104912[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Nicholas, C. W., Nuttall, F. E., & Williams, C. (2000). The Loughborough intermittent shuttle test: A field test that simulates the activity pattern of soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(2), 97–104. doi: 10.1080/026404100365162[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Noakes, T. D., St Clair Gibson, A., & Lambert, E. V. (2004). From catastrophe to complexity: A novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(4), 511–514. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.009860[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Pepys, M. B., & Hirschfield, G. M. (2003). C-reactive protein: A critical update. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111(12), 1805–1812. doi:10.1172/JCI18921 doi: 10.1172/JCI200318921[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Pincemail, J., Deby, C., Camus, G., Pirnay, F., Bouchez, R., Massaux, L., & Goutier, R. (1988). Tocopherol mobilization during intensive exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 57(2), 189–191. doi: 10.1007/BF00640661[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Ramsbottom, R., Brewer, J., & Williams, C. (1988). A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(4), 141–144. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.22.4.141[Crossref], [PubMed], , [Google Scholar] Rowsell, G. J., Coutts, A. J., Reaburn, P., & Hill-Haas, S. (2009). Effects of cold-water immersion on physical performance between successive matches in high-performance junior male soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(6), 565–573. doi: 10.1080/02640410802603855[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Rowsell, G. J., Coutts, A. J., Reaburn, P., & Hill-Haas, S. (2011). Effect of post-match cold-water immersion on subsequent match running performance in junior soccer players during tournament play. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(1), 1–6. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2010.512640[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Spencer, M., Rechichi, C., Lawrence, S., Dawson, B., Bishop, D. J., & Goodman, C. (2005). Time-motion analysis of elite field hockey during several games in succession: A tournament scenario. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 8(4), 382–391. doi: 10.1016/S1440-2440(05)80053-2[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Thomas, K., Dent, J., Howatson, G., & Goodall, S. (2017). Etiology and recovery of neuromuscular fatigue after simulated soccer match play. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(5), 955–964. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001196[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Thurnham, D. I., Smith, E., & Flora, P. S. (1988). Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clinical Chemistry, 34(2), 377–381.[PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Vaile, J., Halson, S., Gill, N., & Dawson, B. (2008). Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(7), 539–544. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-989267[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Warren, G. L., Ingalls, C. P., Lowe, D. A., & Armstrong, R. B. (2001). Excitation-contraction uncoupling: Major role in contraction-induced muscle injury. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 29(2), 82–87.[PubMed], , [Google Scholar] Warren, G. L., Lowe, D. A., & Armstrong, R. B. (1999). Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Medicine, 27(1), 43–59. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199927010-00004[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar] Wolff, S. P. (1994). Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hydroperoxides. Methods in Enzymology, 233, 183–189.[Web of Science {\circledR}], , [Google Scholar]",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1080/17461391.2019.1585478",
language = "English",
journal = "European Journal of Sport Science",
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}

Cold water immersion improves recovery of sprint speed following a simulated tournament. / Leeder, Jonathan D C; Godfrey, Matthew; Gibbon, Daniel; Gaze, David; Davison, Gareth; van Someren, Ken A; Howatson, Glyn.

In: European Journal of Sport Science, 06.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cold water immersion improves recovery of sprint speed following a simulated tournament

AU - Leeder, Jonathan D C

AU - Godfrey, Matthew

AU - Gibbon, Daniel

AU - Gaze, David

AU - Davison, Gareth

AU - van Someren, Ken A

AU - Howatson, Glyn

N1 - Bailey, D. M., Erith, S. J., Griffin, P. J., Dowson, A., Brewer, D. S., Gant, N., & Williams, C. (2007). Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(11), 1163–1170. doi: 10.1080/02640410600982659[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Batterham, A. M., & Hopkins, W. G. (2006). Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(1), 50–57. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.1.1.50[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Beedie, C. J., & Foad, A. J. (2009). The placebo effect in sports performance: A brief review. Sports Medicine, 39(4), 313–329. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200939040-00004[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Bell, P. G., Stevenson, E., Davison, G. W., & Howatson, G. (2016). The effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise. Nutrients, 8(7). doi: 10.3390/nu8070441[Crossref], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Bleakley, C., McDonough, S., Gardner, E., Baxter, G. D., Hopkins, J. T., & Davison, G. W. (2012). Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD008262. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008262.pub2[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Broatch, J. R., Petersen, A., & Bishop, D. J. (2014). Postexercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo effect. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(11), 2139–2147. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000348[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Catignani, G. L., & Bieri, J. G. (1983). Simultaneous determination of retinol and alpha-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography. Clinical Chemistry, 29(4), 708–712.[PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Cook, C. J., & Beaven, C. M. (2013). Individual perception of recovery is related to subsequent sprint performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(11), 705–709. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091647[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Corbett, J., Barwood, M. J., Lunt, H. C., Milner, A., & Tipton, M. J. (2012). Water immersion as a recovery aid from intermittent shuttle running exercise. European Journal of Sport Science, 12, 509–514. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2011.570380[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Davison, G. W., George, L., Jackson, S. K., Young, I. S., Davies, B., Bailey, D. M., … Ashton, T. (2002). Exercise, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 33(11), 1543–1551. doi: 10.1016/S0891-5849(02)01090-0[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Eston, R., & Peters, D. (1999). Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(3), 231–238. doi: 10.1080/026404199366136[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Friden, J., & Lieber, R. L. (2001). Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 171(3), 321–326. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00834.x[Crossref], [PubMed], , [Google Scholar] Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(1), 3–13. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Howatson, G., & van Someren, K. A. (2008). The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Medicine, 38(6), 483–503. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200838060-00004[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Ingram, J., Dawson, B., Goodman, C., Wallman, K., & Beilby, J. (2009). Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(3), 417–421. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2007.12.011[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Leeder, J., Gissane, C., van Someren, K., Gregson, W., & Howatson, G. (2012). Cold water immersion and recovery from strenuous exercise: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(4), 233–240. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090061[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Leeder, J., van Someren, K. A., Bell, P. G., Spence, J. R., Jewell, A. P., Gaze, D., & Howatson, G. (2015). Effects of seated and standing cold water immersion on recovery from repeated sprinting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(15), 1544–1552. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2014.996914[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Leeder, J., van Someren, K. A., Gaze, D., Jewell, A., Deshmukh, N. I., Shah, I., … Howatson, G. (2014). Recovery and adaptation from repeated intermittent-sprint exercise. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9(3), 489–496. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2012-0316[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Montgomery, P. G., Pyne, D. B., Hopkins, W. G., Dorman, J. C., Cook, K., & Minahan, C. L. (2008). The effect of recovery strategies on physical performance and cumulative fatigue in competitive basketball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(11), 1135–1145. doi: 10.1080/02640410802104912[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Nicholas, C. W., Nuttall, F. E., & Williams, C. (2000). The Loughborough intermittent shuttle test: A field test that simulates the activity pattern of soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(2), 97–104. doi: 10.1080/026404100365162[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Noakes, T. D., St Clair Gibson, A., & Lambert, E. V. (2004). From catastrophe to complexity: A novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(4), 511–514. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.009860[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Pepys, M. B., & Hirschfield, G. M. (2003). C-reactive protein: A critical update. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111(12), 1805–1812. doi:10.1172/JCI18921 doi: 10.1172/JCI200318921[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Pincemail, J., Deby, C., Camus, G., Pirnay, F., Bouchez, R., Massaux, L., & Goutier, R. (1988). Tocopherol mobilization during intensive exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 57(2), 189–191. doi: 10.1007/BF00640661[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Ramsbottom, R., Brewer, J., & Williams, C. (1988). A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(4), 141–144. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.22.4.141[Crossref], [PubMed], , [Google Scholar] Rowsell, G. J., Coutts, A. J., Reaburn, P., & Hill-Haas, S. (2009). Effects of cold-water immersion on physical performance between successive matches in high-performance junior male soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(6), 565–573. doi: 10.1080/02640410802603855[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Rowsell, G. J., Coutts, A. J., Reaburn, P., & Hill-Haas, S. (2011). Effect of post-match cold-water immersion on subsequent match running performance in junior soccer players during tournament play. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(1), 1–6. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2010.512640[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Spencer, M., Rechichi, C., Lawrence, S., Dawson, B., Bishop, D. J., & Goodman, C. (2005). Time-motion analysis of elite field hockey during several games in succession: A tournament scenario. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 8(4), 382–391. doi: 10.1016/S1440-2440(05)80053-2[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Thomas, K., Dent, J., Howatson, G., & Goodall, S. (2017). Etiology and recovery of neuromuscular fatigue after simulated soccer match play. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(5), 955–964. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001196[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Thurnham, D. I., Smith, E., & Flora, P. S. (1988). Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clinical Chemistry, 34(2), 377–381.[PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Vaile, J., Halson, S., Gill, N., & Dawson, B. (2008). Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(7), 539–544. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-989267[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Warren, G. L., Ingalls, C. P., Lowe, D. A., & Armstrong, R. B. (2001). Excitation-contraction uncoupling: Major role in contraction-induced muscle injury. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 29(2), 82–87.[PubMed], , [Google Scholar] Warren, G. L., Lowe, D. A., & Armstrong, R. B. (1999). Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Medicine, 27(1), 43–59. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199927010-00004[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar] Wolff, S. P. (1994). Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hydroperoxides. Methods in Enzymology, 233, 183–189.[Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar]

PY - 2019/4/6

Y1 - 2019/4/6

N2 - It is a common requirement in tournament scenarios for athletes to compete multiple times in a relatively short time period, with insufficient recovery time not allowing full restoration of physical performance. This study aimed to develop a greater understanding of the physiological stress experienced by athletes in a tournament scenario, and how a commonly used recovery strategy, cold water immersion (CWI), might influence these markers. Twenty-one trained male games players (age 19 ± 2; body mass 78.0 ± 8.8 kg) were randomised into a CWI group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 10). To simulate a tournament, participants completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on three occasions in five days. Recovery was assessed at specific time points using markers of sprint performance, muscle function, muscle soreness and biochemical markers of damage (creatine kinase, CK), inflammation (IL-6 and C-Reactive Protein) and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides and activity of 6 lipid-soluble antioxidants). The simulated tournament was associated with perturbations in some, but not all, markers of physiological stress and recovery. Cold water immersion was associated with improved recovery of sprint speed 24 h after the final LIST (ES = 0.83 ± 0.59; p =.034) and attenuated the efflux of CK pre- and post-LIST 3 (p <.01). The tournament scenario resulted in an escalation of physiological stress that, in the main, cold water immersion was ineffective at managing. These data suggest that CWI is not harmful, and provides limited benefits in attenuating the deleterious effects experienced during tournament scenarios.

AB - It is a common requirement in tournament scenarios for athletes to compete multiple times in a relatively short time period, with insufficient recovery time not allowing full restoration of physical performance. This study aimed to develop a greater understanding of the physiological stress experienced by athletes in a tournament scenario, and how a commonly used recovery strategy, cold water immersion (CWI), might influence these markers. Twenty-one trained male games players (age 19 ± 2; body mass 78.0 ± 8.8 kg) were randomised into a CWI group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 10). To simulate a tournament, participants completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on three occasions in five days. Recovery was assessed at specific time points using markers of sprint performance, muscle function, muscle soreness and biochemical markers of damage (creatine kinase, CK), inflammation (IL-6 and C-Reactive Protein) and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides and activity of 6 lipid-soluble antioxidants). The simulated tournament was associated with perturbations in some, but not all, markers of physiological stress and recovery. Cold water immersion was associated with improved recovery of sprint speed 24 h after the final LIST (ES = 0.83 ± 0.59; p =.034) and attenuated the efflux of CK pre- and post-LIST 3 (p <.01). The tournament scenario resulted in an escalation of physiological stress that, in the main, cold water immersion was ineffective at managing. These data suggest that CWI is not harmful, and provides limited benefits in attenuating the deleterious effects experienced during tournament scenarios.

KW - Muscle damage

KW - recovery

KW - strenuous exercise

KW - athletes

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DO - 10.1080/17461391.2019.1585478

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JO - European Journal of Sport Science

T2 - European Journal of Sport Science

JF - European Journal of Sport Science

SN - 1746-1391

ER -