Civil society management education in Finland: What’s management got to do with it?

Markus Ketola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The increasing professionalization of civil society is a global trend that stems largely from the growing role of third sector organizations in policy making and service delivery. Such a trend can also be identified in Finland, providing a timely moment to take stock of the current provision of tertiary level civil society management education in the Finnish higher education system. In this article, I identify two ways of conceptualizing the role of civil society whereby civil society organizations are seen as a function of either service delivery or democratization. In Finnish civil society education, the latter view tends to be emphasized, leaving a gap between the needs of professionalizing civil society organizations and the current provision of higher education courses on civil society management.
LanguageEnglish
Pages305-324
JournalJournal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership
Volume5
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2015

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Finland
civil society
management
education
professionalization
trend
education system
democratization

Keywords

  • civil society management education
  • civil society
  • management
  • third sector

Cite this

@article{e7dfadb79fc345bd9c58435a86941a16,
title = "Civil society management education in Finland: What’s management got to do with it?",
abstract = "The increasing professionalization of civil society is a global trend that stems largely from the growing role of third sector organizations in policy making and service delivery. Such a trend can also be identified in Finland, providing a timely moment to take stock of the current provision of tertiary level civil society management education in the Finnish higher education system. In this article, I identify two ways of conceptualizing the role of civil society whereby civil society organizations are seen as a function of either service delivery or democratization. In Finnish civil society education, the latter view tends to be emphasized, leaving a gap between the needs of professionalizing civil society organizations and the current provision of higher education courses on civil society management.",
keywords = "civil society management education, civil society, management, third sector",
author = "Markus Ketola",
note = "Reference text: Alapuro, R. (2010). Introduction: Comparative approaches to associations and civil society in Nordic countries. In R. Alapuro & H. Stenius (Eds.), European civil society: Vol. 8. Nordic associations in a European perspective (pp. 29–85). Baden- Baden, Germany: Nomos. Alapuro, R., Liikanen, I., Smeds, K., & Stenius, H. (1989). Kansa liikkeess{\"a} [People in motion]. Helsinki, Finland: Kirjayhtym{\"a}. Alapuro, R., & Stenius, H. (Eds.). (2010). European civil society: Vol. 8. Nordic associations in a European perspective. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos. Bebbington, A., Hickey, S., & Mitlin, D. (2008). Can NGOs make a difference? The challenge of development alternatives. London, England: Zed Books. Clark, J. D. (2010). Advocacy. In H. Anheier, S. Toepler, & R. List (Eds.), International encyclopedia of civil society (pp. 12–18). New York, NY: Springer. Denhardt, J. V., & Denhardt, R. B. (2007). The new public service: Serving, not steering. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Dunleavy, P., Margetts, H., Bastow, S., & Tinkler, J. (2006). New public management is dead—Long live digital-era governance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16, 467–494. doi:10.1093/jopart/mui057 Edwards, M. (2011). Introduction: Civil society and the geometry of human relations. In M. Edwards (Ed.), Oxford handbook of civil society (pp. 3–14). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Etzioni, A. (1973). The third sector and domestic missions. Public Administration Review, 33(4), 314–323. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/975110 Hudson, M. (2002). Managing without profit: The art of managing third-sector organizations (2nd ed.). London, England: Directory of Social Change. Hvenmark, J., & Segnestam Larsson, O. (2012) International mappings of nonprofit management education: An analytical framework and the case of Sweden. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 23(1), 59–75. doi:10.1002/nml.21050 Kendall, J., & Knapp, M. (1995). A loose and baggy monster: Boundaries, definitions, and typologies. In J. Davis Smith, C. Rochester, & R. Hedley (Eds.), An introduction to the voluntary sector (pp. 66–95). London, England: Routledge. Lappalainen, P. (2010). Breaking the traditional style of Finnish civic activity. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 35(1), 71–92. doi:10.1177/030437541003500104 Lewis, D. (2001). The management of non-governmental development organisations: An introduction. London, England: Routledge. Lewis, D. (2003). Theorising the organisation and management of non-governmental development organisations: Towards a composite approach. Public Management Review, 5, 325–344. doi:10.1080/1471903032000146937 Mirabella, R. M., Gemelli, G., Malcolm, M.-J., & Berger, G. (2007). Nonprofit and philanthropic studies: International overview of the field in Africa, Canada, Latin America, Asia, the Pacific, and Europe. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(Suppl. 4), 110S–135S. doi:10.1177/0899764007305052 Mouffe, C. (2000). The democratic paradox. New York, NY: Verso. Civil Society Management Education in Finland • 323 Najam, A. (1999). Citizen organizations as policy entrepreneurs. In D. Lewis (Ed.), International perspectives on voluntary action: Reshaping the third sector (pp. 142– 181). London, England: Earthscan. Ohtonen, J. (2000). The economic nature of the Finnish third sector. In M. Siisi{\"a}inen, P. Kinnunen, & E. Hietanen (Eds.), The third sector in Finland: Review to research of the Finnish third sector (pp. 169–180). Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Federation for Social Welfare and Health, University of Lapland. Posp{\'i}šilov{\'a}, T. (2011). Nonprofit management education in the Czech Republic: The struggle for civil society versus the struggle for survival. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41, 325–341. doi:10.1177/0899764011420728 Prime Minister’s Office. (2011). Programme of Prime Minister Jyrki Katainen’s government. Retrieved from http://valtioneuvosto.fi/hallitus/hallitusohjelma/pdf/ en334743.pdf Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Ravitch, D., & Viteritti, J. P. (Eds.). (2001). Making good citizens: Education and civil society. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Salamon, L. M., & Anheier, H. K. (1992). In search of the non-profit sector. I: The question of definitions. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 3(2), 125–151. doi:10.1007/BF01397770 Siisi{\"a}inen, M. (1999). Voluntary associations and social capital in Finland. In J. Van Dept, M. Maraffi, & K. Newton (Eds.), Social capital and European democracy (pp. 120–143). New York, NY: Routledge. Siisi{\"a}inen, M. (2000). Social capital, power, and the third sector. In M. Siisi{\"a}inen, P. Kinnunen, & E. Hietanen (Eds.), The third sector in Finland: Review to research of the Finnish third sector (pp. 7–35). Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Federation for Social Welfare and Health, University of Lapland. Siisi{\"a}inen, M. (2004). Yhdistysten Nykytila ja Kehityksen Suunnat [The current state of associations and the direction of development]. In Yhdistystoiminnan Uusjako [Redistribution of association activity] (pp. 10–34). Helsinki, Finland: Opintotoiminnan Keskusliitto. Siisi{\"a}inen, M., Kinnunen, P., & Hietanen, E. (Eds.). (2000). The third sector in Finland: Review to research of the Finnish third sector. Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Federation for Social Welfare and Health, University of Lapland. Skocpol, T. (2003). Diminished democracy: From membership to management in American civic life. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Smith, S. R. (2011). The nonprofit sector. In M. Edwards (Ed.), Oxford handbook of civil society (pp. 29–41). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Stenius, H. (2010). Nordic associational life in a European and an inter-Nordic perspective. In R. Alapuro & H. Stenius (Eds.), European civil society: Vol. 8. Nordic associations in a European perspective (pp. 29–85). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos. Tr{\"a}g{\aa}rdh, L. (Ed.). (2007). European civil society: Vol. 3. State and civil society in Northern Europe: The Swedish model reconsidered. New York, NY: Berghahn Books. 324 • Ketola University of Helsinki. (2014). PH203 Moderni valtio ja kansalaisyhteiskunta [The modern state and civil society]. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from https://weboodi. helsinki.fi/hy/Helsinki University of Joensuu. (2013). Sosiologia Sivuaineena [Sociology as a minor subject]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://www.uef.fi/documents/1381035/1715228/ sosiologia_sivuaineops_20122013.pdf/9c8cc509-fb41-4f11-a5c7-f08ed553bebc University of Tampere. (2013a). POLVOS23 Kansalaisyhteiskunta ja poliittinen osallistuminen [Civil society and political participation]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www10.uta.fi/opas/ University of Tampere. (2013b). POLVOS23/25 Kansalaisliikkeet 2000-luvun politiikassa [Social movements in 21st century politics]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www10.uta.fi/opas/ University of Jyv{\"a}skyl{\"a}. (2013a). Kansalaisyhteiskunnan asiantuntijuus [Civil society expertise]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www.jyu.fi/ytk/laitokset/yfi/ oppianeet/kans University of Jyv{\"a}skyl{\"a}. (2013b). Maisteriohjelman esittely [An introduction to the master’s programme]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www.jyu.fi/ytk/ laitokset/yfi/oppianeet/kans/maesittely University of Jyv{\"a}skyl{\"a}. (2013c). Opiskelijavalinta kev{\"a}{\"a}ll{\"a} [Student selection in the spring]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www.jyu.fi/ytk/laitokset/yfi/ oppianeet/kans/ opiskelijavalinta Walzer, M. (1998). The concept of civil society. In M. Walzer (Ed.), Toward a global civil society (pp. 7–28). Oxford, United Kingdom: Berghahn Books. Werther, W. B., & Berman, E. M. (2001). Third sector management: The art of managing nonprofit organizations. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Wish, B. N., & Mirabella, R. N. (1998). Curricular variations in nonprofit management graduate programs. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 9, 99–109. doi:10.1002/ nml.9108",
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Civil society management education in Finland: What’s management got to do with it? / Ketola, Markus.

Vol. 5, No. 4, 10.11.2015, p. 305-324.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Civil society management education in Finland: What’s management got to do with it?

AU - Ketola, Markus

N1 - Reference text: Alapuro, R. (2010). Introduction: Comparative approaches to associations and civil society in Nordic countries. In R. Alapuro & H. Stenius (Eds.), European civil society: Vol. 8. Nordic associations in a European perspective (pp. 29–85). Baden- Baden, Germany: Nomos. Alapuro, R., Liikanen, I., Smeds, K., & Stenius, H. (1989). Kansa liikkeessä [People in motion]. Helsinki, Finland: Kirjayhtymä. Alapuro, R., & Stenius, H. (Eds.). (2010). European civil society: Vol. 8. Nordic associations in a European perspective. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos. Bebbington, A., Hickey, S., & Mitlin, D. (2008). Can NGOs make a difference? The challenge of development alternatives. London, England: Zed Books. Clark, J. D. (2010). Advocacy. In H. Anheier, S. Toepler, & R. List (Eds.), International encyclopedia of civil society (pp. 12–18). New York, NY: Springer. Denhardt, J. V., & Denhardt, R. B. (2007). The new public service: Serving, not steering. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Dunleavy, P., Margetts, H., Bastow, S., & Tinkler, J. (2006). New public management is dead—Long live digital-era governance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16, 467–494. doi:10.1093/jopart/mui057 Edwards, M. (2011). Introduction: Civil society and the geometry of human relations. In M. Edwards (Ed.), Oxford handbook of civil society (pp. 3–14). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Etzioni, A. (1973). The third sector and domestic missions. Public Administration Review, 33(4), 314–323. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/975110 Hudson, M. (2002). Managing without profit: The art of managing third-sector organizations (2nd ed.). London, England: Directory of Social Change. Hvenmark, J., & Segnestam Larsson, O. (2012) International mappings of nonprofit management education: An analytical framework and the case of Sweden. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 23(1), 59–75. doi:10.1002/nml.21050 Kendall, J., & Knapp, M. (1995). A loose and baggy monster: Boundaries, definitions, and typologies. In J. Davis Smith, C. Rochester, & R. Hedley (Eds.), An introduction to the voluntary sector (pp. 66–95). London, England: Routledge. Lappalainen, P. (2010). Breaking the traditional style of Finnish civic activity. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 35(1), 71–92. doi:10.1177/030437541003500104 Lewis, D. (2001). The management of non-governmental development organisations: An introduction. London, England: Routledge. Lewis, D. (2003). Theorising the organisation and management of non-governmental development organisations: Towards a composite approach. Public Management Review, 5, 325–344. doi:10.1080/1471903032000146937 Mirabella, R. M., Gemelli, G., Malcolm, M.-J., & Berger, G. (2007). Nonprofit and philanthropic studies: International overview of the field in Africa, Canada, Latin America, Asia, the Pacific, and Europe. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(Suppl. 4), 110S–135S. doi:10.1177/0899764007305052 Mouffe, C. (2000). The democratic paradox. New York, NY: Verso. Civil Society Management Education in Finland • 323 Najam, A. (1999). Citizen organizations as policy entrepreneurs. In D. Lewis (Ed.), International perspectives on voluntary action: Reshaping the third sector (pp. 142– 181). London, England: Earthscan. Ohtonen, J. (2000). The economic nature of the Finnish third sector. In M. Siisiäinen, P. Kinnunen, & E. Hietanen (Eds.), The third sector in Finland: Review to research of the Finnish third sector (pp. 169–180). Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Federation for Social Welfare and Health, University of Lapland. Pospíšilová, T. (2011). Nonprofit management education in the Czech Republic: The struggle for civil society versus the struggle for survival. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41, 325–341. doi:10.1177/0899764011420728 Prime Minister’s Office. (2011). Programme of Prime Minister Jyrki Katainen’s government. Retrieved from http://valtioneuvosto.fi/hallitus/hallitusohjelma/pdf/ en334743.pdf Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Ravitch, D., & Viteritti, J. P. (Eds.). (2001). Making good citizens: Education and civil society. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Salamon, L. M., & Anheier, H. K. (1992). In search of the non-profit sector. I: The question of definitions. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 3(2), 125–151. doi:10.1007/BF01397770 Siisiäinen, M. (1999). Voluntary associations and social capital in Finland. In J. Van Dept, M. Maraffi, & K. Newton (Eds.), Social capital and European democracy (pp. 120–143). New York, NY: Routledge. Siisiäinen, M. (2000). Social capital, power, and the third sector. In M. Siisiäinen, P. Kinnunen, & E. Hietanen (Eds.), The third sector in Finland: Review to research of the Finnish third sector (pp. 7–35). Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Federation for Social Welfare and Health, University of Lapland. Siisiäinen, M. (2004). Yhdistysten Nykytila ja Kehityksen Suunnat [The current state of associations and the direction of development]. In Yhdistystoiminnan Uusjako [Redistribution of association activity] (pp. 10–34). Helsinki, Finland: Opintotoiminnan Keskusliitto. Siisiäinen, M., Kinnunen, P., & Hietanen, E. (Eds.). (2000). The third sector in Finland: Review to research of the Finnish third sector. Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Federation for Social Welfare and Health, University of Lapland. Skocpol, T. (2003). Diminished democracy: From membership to management in American civic life. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Smith, S. R. (2011). The nonprofit sector. In M. Edwards (Ed.), Oxford handbook of civil society (pp. 29–41). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Stenius, H. (2010). Nordic associational life in a European and an inter-Nordic perspective. In R. Alapuro & H. Stenius (Eds.), European civil society: Vol. 8. Nordic associations in a European perspective (pp. 29–85). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos. Trägårdh, L. (Ed.). (2007). European civil society: Vol. 3. State and civil society in Northern Europe: The Swedish model reconsidered. New York, NY: Berghahn Books. 324 • Ketola University of Helsinki. (2014). PH203 Moderni valtio ja kansalaisyhteiskunta [The modern state and civil society]. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from https://weboodi. helsinki.fi/hy/Helsinki University of Joensuu. (2013). Sosiologia Sivuaineena [Sociology as a minor subject]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://www.uef.fi/documents/1381035/1715228/ sosiologia_sivuaineops_20122013.pdf/9c8cc509-fb41-4f11-a5c7-f08ed553bebc University of Tampere. (2013a). POLVOS23 Kansalaisyhteiskunta ja poliittinen osallistuminen [Civil society and political participation]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www10.uta.fi/opas/ University of Tampere. (2013b). POLVOS23/25 Kansalaisliikkeet 2000-luvun politiikassa [Social movements in 21st century politics]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www10.uta.fi/opas/ University of Jyväskylä. (2013a). Kansalaisyhteiskunnan asiantuntijuus [Civil society expertise]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www.jyu.fi/ytk/laitokset/yfi/ oppianeet/kans University of Jyväskylä. (2013b). Maisteriohjelman esittely [An introduction to the master’s programme]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www.jyu.fi/ytk/ laitokset/yfi/oppianeet/kans/maesittely University of Jyväskylä. (2013c). Opiskelijavalinta keväällä [Student selection in the spring]. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from https://www.jyu.fi/ytk/laitokset/yfi/ oppianeet/kans/ opiskelijavalinta Walzer, M. (1998). The concept of civil society. In M. Walzer (Ed.), Toward a global civil society (pp. 7–28). Oxford, United Kingdom: Berghahn Books. Werther, W. B., & Berman, E. M. (2001). Third sector management: The art of managing nonprofit organizations. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Wish, B. N., & Mirabella, R. N. (1998). Curricular variations in nonprofit management graduate programs. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 9, 99–109. doi:10.1002/ nml.9108

PY - 2015/11/10

Y1 - 2015/11/10

N2 - The increasing professionalization of civil society is a global trend that stems largely from the growing role of third sector organizations in policy making and service delivery. Such a trend can also be identified in Finland, providing a timely moment to take stock of the current provision of tertiary level civil society management education in the Finnish higher education system. In this article, I identify two ways of conceptualizing the role of civil society whereby civil society organizations are seen as a function of either service delivery or democratization. In Finnish civil society education, the latter view tends to be emphasized, leaving a gap between the needs of professionalizing civil society organizations and the current provision of higher education courses on civil society management.

AB - The increasing professionalization of civil society is a global trend that stems largely from the growing role of third sector organizations in policy making and service delivery. Such a trend can also be identified in Finland, providing a timely moment to take stock of the current provision of tertiary level civil society management education in the Finnish higher education system. In this article, I identify two ways of conceptualizing the role of civil society whereby civil society organizations are seen as a function of either service delivery or democratization. In Finnish civil society education, the latter view tends to be emphasized, leaving a gap between the needs of professionalizing civil society organizations and the current provision of higher education courses on civil society management.

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KW - civil society

KW - management

KW - third sector

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ER -