Citizenship Education in England, Ireland and Northern Ireland

David Kerr, Stephen McCarthy, Alan Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The 1990s have seen a resurgence of interest in citizenship education in the UKand Ireland. Within the UK, interest in citizenship education has been fuelled by the Labour government's commitment to a process of devolution and the establishment of new legislative Assemblies in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. This has given rise to renewed debate on issues related to nationality, identity and citizenship in each of the constituent countries of the UK. Alongside this, there is a growing concern within each of these jurisdictions to understand how a sense of citizenship might be maintained within a context of increasing social, cultural and political diversity. In England in 1998 an Advisory Group on Citizenship, under the chairmanship of Professor Bernard Crick, issued its final report, Education forCitizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools. One outcome has been the introduction of citizenship education for pupils in all schools from September 2000 for 5- to 11-year-olds and from September 2002 for 11- to 16-year-olds. The English citizenship curriculum has three main strands (Social and moral responsibility; Community involvement; and Political literacy).The Republic of Ireland has had a longer involvement in the development of civic education. A pilot project between 1993 and 1996 led to the introduction of a new curriculum programme in Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE) in all secondary level schools from September 1997. CSPE is a course in citizenship based on human rights and social responsibilities. It aims to develop active citizens who have a sense of belonging to the local, national, European and global communities. The course incorporates seven key concepts (democracy, rights and responsibilities, human dignity, interdependence, development, law and stewardship) and is taught through four units of study (The Individual and Citizenship; The Community; The State; Ireland and the World). In terms of its constitutional status, Northern Ireland is part of the UK, yet geographically it is part of the island of Ireland. For historical and political reasons it has a Unionist and Loyalist population (predominantly Protestant) that wishes to remain part of the UK and a Nationalist and Republican population (mainly Catholic) that seeks to be part of a unified Ireland. Competing loyaltiesbetween British and Irish identities have been a feature of the violent conflict in Northern Ireland for the past 30 years. However, the Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement in April 1998 led to the establishment of new, democratic structures as part of an emerging `peace process' and guaranteed equal status to British and Irish identities. This is the context in which current plans for the introduction of citizenship education in the Northern Ireland Curriculum are taking place.This article describes recent developments in civic and citizenship education in each of these situations, highlighting the differing political contexts in which they have arisen and how these have influenced definitions of civic and citizenship education as part of new curriculum programmes.
LanguageEnglish
Pages179-192
JournalEuropean Journal of Education
Volume37
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Fingerprint

Ireland
citizenship
education
political education
curriculum
school
democracy
community
rights and responsibilities
human dignity
peace process
social responsibility
pilot project
nationality
interdependence
decentralization
jurisdiction
pupil
human rights
university teacher

Cite this

Kerr, David ; McCarthy, Stephen ; Smith, Alan. / Citizenship Education in England, Ireland and Northern Ireland. In: European Journal of Education. 2002 ; Vol. 37, No. 2. pp. 179-192.
@article{e9c4d986af6f477695e12c32ff767245,
title = "Citizenship Education in England, Ireland and Northern Ireland",
abstract = "The 1990s have seen a resurgence of interest in citizenship education in the UKand Ireland. Within the UK, interest in citizenship education has been fuelled by the Labour government's commitment to a process of devolution and the establishment of new legislative Assemblies in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. This has given rise to renewed debate on issues related to nationality, identity and citizenship in each of the constituent countries of the UK. Alongside this, there is a growing concern within each of these jurisdictions to understand how a sense of citizenship might be maintained within a context of increasing social, cultural and political diversity. In England in 1998 an Advisory Group on Citizenship, under the chairmanship of Professor Bernard Crick, issued its final report, Education forCitizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools. One outcome has been the introduction of citizenship education for pupils in all schools from September 2000 for 5- to 11-year-olds and from September 2002 for 11- to 16-year-olds. The English citizenship curriculum has three main strands (Social and moral responsibility; Community involvement; and Political literacy).The Republic of Ireland has had a longer involvement in the development of civic education. A pilot project between 1993 and 1996 led to the introduction of a new curriculum programme in Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE) in all secondary level schools from September 1997. CSPE is a course in citizenship based on human rights and social responsibilities. It aims to develop active citizens who have a sense of belonging to the local, national, European and global communities. The course incorporates seven key concepts (democracy, rights and responsibilities, human dignity, interdependence, development, law and stewardship) and is taught through four units of study (The Individual and Citizenship; The Community; The State; Ireland and the World). In terms of its constitutional status, Northern Ireland is part of the UK, yet geographically it is part of the island of Ireland. For historical and political reasons it has a Unionist and Loyalist population (predominantly Protestant) that wishes to remain part of the UK and a Nationalist and Republican population (mainly Catholic) that seeks to be part of a unified Ireland. Competing loyaltiesbetween British and Irish identities have been a feature of the violent conflict in Northern Ireland for the past 30 years. However, the Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement in April 1998 led to the establishment of new, democratic structures as part of an emerging `peace process' and guaranteed equal status to British and Irish identities. This is the context in which current plans for the introduction of citizenship education in the Northern Ireland Curriculum are taking place.This article describes recent developments in civic and citizenship education in each of these situations, highlighting the differing political contexts in which they have arisen and how these have influenced definitions of civic and citizenship education as part of new curriculum programmes.",
author = "David Kerr and Stephen McCarthy and Alan Smith",
note = "Reference text: ABRAMS, F. (1993) Rights, duties and the greater scheme, Times Education Supplement,16 July. APPLE, M. & BEANE, J. (1999) Democratic Schools: Lessons from the Chalkface (Buckingham, Open University Press). ARLOW, M. (1999) Citizenship education in a contested society, The Development Education Journal, 6, 1, October. CALLAN, E. (1997) Creating Citizens: Political Education in a Liberal Democracy (Oxford, Oxford University Press). COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2000) Education for Democratic Citizenship (Strasbourg, COE). CRICK, B. & PORTER, A. (Eds) (1978) Political Education and Political Literacy (London, Longman). CRICK, B. (1998) Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools: Final report of the advisory group on citizenship (London, QCA). CRICK, B. (2000) Essays on Citizenship (London, Continuum). DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT/QUALIFICATIONS AND CURRICULUM AUTHORITY (1999a) Citizenship: Key Stages 3^4 (London, DFEE/QCA). DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT/QUALIFICATIONS AND David Kerr, Stephen McCarthy & Alan Smith 189 {\ss} Blackwell Publishers Ltd 2002 CURRICULUM AUTHORITY (1999b) PSHE and Citizenship: Key Stages 1^2 (London, DFEE/QCA). GAMARNIKOW, E. & GREEN, A. (2000) Social capital and the educated citizen, in: D. LAWTON, J. CAIRNS & R. GARDNER (Eds) Education for Citizenship (London, Continuum). GIDDENS, A. (1998) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy (London, Policy Press) GIDDENS, A. (2000) in: N. PEARCE & J. HALLGARTEN (Eds) Tomorrow's Citizens: Critical Debates in Citizenship and Education (London, IPPR). HAMMOND, J. & LOONEY, A. (2000) Re-visioning citizenship education: the Irish experience, in: D. LAWTON, J. CAIRNS & R. GARDNER (Eds) Education for Citizenship (London, Continuum). HARGREAVES, D. (1993) Introduction to M. Huberman The Lives of Teachers (London, Cassell). HURD, D. (1988) Citizenship in the Tory democracy, New Statesman, 29 April. JOWELL, R. & PARK, A. (1998) Young People, Politics and Citizenship: A Disengaged Generation? (London, Citizenship Foundation). KERR, D., LINES, A., BLENKINSOP, S. & SCHAGEN, S. (2001) Citizenship and Education at Age 14: A Summary of the International Findings and Preliminary Results for England (Slough; NFER). KERR, D., LINES, A., BLENKINSOP, S. & SCHAGEN, S. (2002) What Citizenship and Education Means to 14-year-olds: the National Report on England's Findings from the IEA Citizenship Education Study (London, DfES). KYMLICKA, W. (1999) Education for citizenship, The School Field, 1/2, pp. 9^36. LYNCH, K. (2000) Education for Citizenship: the need for a major intervention in social and political education in Ireland. Presentation at the CSPE conference, Bunratty, Co. Clare. MACGREGOR, J. (1990) Helping today's children become tomorrow's citizens. Speech at the Consultative Conference on Citizenship, Northampton, 16 February. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT (1993) Civic, Social and Political Education at Post-Primary Level. Discussion Paper (Dublin, NCCA). NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT (1993) Civic, Social and Political Education {\"o} Draft Syllabus (Dublin, NCCA). NORTHERN IRELAND COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (1988) Education for Mutual Understanding {\"o} a Guide (Belfast, NICED). NORTHERN IRELAND, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (1982) The Improvement of Community Relations: the Contribution of Schools. Circular 1982/21 (Bangor, Co. Down). NORTHERN IRELAND, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (1999) Towards a Culture of Tolerance: Education for Diversity (Bangor, Co. Down). ROWE, D. (1997) Value pluralism, democracy and education for citizenship, in: M. LEICESTER, C. MODGIL & F. MODGIL (Eds) Values, Culture and Education: Political and Citizenship Education (London, Cassell). SMITH, A. & ROBINSON, A. (1992) Education for Mutual Understanding, Perceptions and Policy (Coleraine, University of Ulster). SMITH, A. & ROBINSON, A. (1996) Education for Mutual Understanding, The Statutory Years (Coleraine, University of Ulster). SMYTH, M. et al (2000) The Youthquest 2000 Survey (INCORE, University of Ulster). TORNEY-PURTA, J., LEHMANN, R., OSWALD, H. & SCHULZ, W. (2001) Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen (Amsterdam, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement).",
year = "2002",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "179--192",
journal = "European Journal of Education",
issn = "0141-8211",
number = "2",

}

Citizenship Education in England, Ireland and Northern Ireland. / Kerr, David; McCarthy, Stephen; Smith, Alan.

In: European Journal of Education, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2002, p. 179-192.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Citizenship Education in England, Ireland and Northern Ireland

AU - Kerr, David

AU - McCarthy, Stephen

AU - Smith, Alan

N1 - Reference text: ABRAMS, F. (1993) Rights, duties and the greater scheme, Times Education Supplement,16 July. APPLE, M. & BEANE, J. (1999) Democratic Schools: Lessons from the Chalkface (Buckingham, Open University Press). ARLOW, M. (1999) Citizenship education in a contested society, The Development Education Journal, 6, 1, October. CALLAN, E. (1997) Creating Citizens: Political Education in a Liberal Democracy (Oxford, Oxford University Press). COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2000) Education for Democratic Citizenship (Strasbourg, COE). CRICK, B. & PORTER, A. (Eds) (1978) Political Education and Political Literacy (London, Longman). CRICK, B. (1998) Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools: Final report of the advisory group on citizenship (London, QCA). CRICK, B. (2000) Essays on Citizenship (London, Continuum). DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT/QUALIFICATIONS AND CURRICULUM AUTHORITY (1999a) Citizenship: Key Stages 3^4 (London, DFEE/QCA). DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT/QUALIFICATIONS AND David Kerr, Stephen McCarthy & Alan Smith 189 ß Blackwell Publishers Ltd 2002 CURRICULUM AUTHORITY (1999b) PSHE and Citizenship: Key Stages 1^2 (London, DFEE/QCA). GAMARNIKOW, E. & GREEN, A. (2000) Social capital and the educated citizen, in: D. LAWTON, J. CAIRNS & R. GARDNER (Eds) Education for Citizenship (London, Continuum). GIDDENS, A. (1998) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy (London, Policy Press) GIDDENS, A. (2000) in: N. PEARCE & J. HALLGARTEN (Eds) Tomorrow's Citizens: Critical Debates in Citizenship and Education (London, IPPR). HAMMOND, J. & LOONEY, A. (2000) Re-visioning citizenship education: the Irish experience, in: D. LAWTON, J. CAIRNS & R. GARDNER (Eds) Education for Citizenship (London, Continuum). HARGREAVES, D. (1993) Introduction to M. Huberman The Lives of Teachers (London, Cassell). HURD, D. (1988) Citizenship in the Tory democracy, New Statesman, 29 April. JOWELL, R. & PARK, A. (1998) Young People, Politics and Citizenship: A Disengaged Generation? (London, Citizenship Foundation). KERR, D., LINES, A., BLENKINSOP, S. & SCHAGEN, S. (2001) Citizenship and Education at Age 14: A Summary of the International Findings and Preliminary Results for England (Slough; NFER). KERR, D., LINES, A., BLENKINSOP, S. & SCHAGEN, S. (2002) What Citizenship and Education Means to 14-year-olds: the National Report on England's Findings from the IEA Citizenship Education Study (London, DfES). KYMLICKA, W. (1999) Education for citizenship, The School Field, 1/2, pp. 9^36. LYNCH, K. (2000) Education for Citizenship: the need for a major intervention in social and political education in Ireland. Presentation at the CSPE conference, Bunratty, Co. Clare. MACGREGOR, J. (1990) Helping today's children become tomorrow's citizens. Speech at the Consultative Conference on Citizenship, Northampton, 16 February. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT (1993) Civic, Social and Political Education at Post-Primary Level. Discussion Paper (Dublin, NCCA). NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT (1993) Civic, Social and Political Education ö Draft Syllabus (Dublin, NCCA). NORTHERN IRELAND COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (1988) Education for Mutual Understanding ö a Guide (Belfast, NICED). NORTHERN IRELAND, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (1982) The Improvement of Community Relations: the Contribution of Schools. Circular 1982/21 (Bangor, Co. Down). NORTHERN IRELAND, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (1999) Towards a Culture of Tolerance: Education for Diversity (Bangor, Co. Down). ROWE, D. (1997) Value pluralism, democracy and education for citizenship, in: M. LEICESTER, C. MODGIL & F. MODGIL (Eds) Values, Culture and Education: Political and Citizenship Education (London, Cassell). SMITH, A. & ROBINSON, A. (1992) Education for Mutual Understanding, Perceptions and Policy (Coleraine, University of Ulster). SMITH, A. & ROBINSON, A. (1996) Education for Mutual Understanding, The Statutory Years (Coleraine, University of Ulster). SMYTH, M. et al (2000) The Youthquest 2000 Survey (INCORE, University of Ulster). TORNEY-PURTA, J., LEHMANN, R., OSWALD, H. & SCHULZ, W. (2001) Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen (Amsterdam, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement).

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - The 1990s have seen a resurgence of interest in citizenship education in the UKand Ireland. Within the UK, interest in citizenship education has been fuelled by the Labour government's commitment to a process of devolution and the establishment of new legislative Assemblies in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. This has given rise to renewed debate on issues related to nationality, identity and citizenship in each of the constituent countries of the UK. Alongside this, there is a growing concern within each of these jurisdictions to understand how a sense of citizenship might be maintained within a context of increasing social, cultural and political diversity. In England in 1998 an Advisory Group on Citizenship, under the chairmanship of Professor Bernard Crick, issued its final report, Education forCitizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools. One outcome has been the introduction of citizenship education for pupils in all schools from September 2000 for 5- to 11-year-olds and from September 2002 for 11- to 16-year-olds. The English citizenship curriculum has three main strands (Social and moral responsibility; Community involvement; and Political literacy).The Republic of Ireland has had a longer involvement in the development of civic education. A pilot project between 1993 and 1996 led to the introduction of a new curriculum programme in Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE) in all secondary level schools from September 1997. CSPE is a course in citizenship based on human rights and social responsibilities. It aims to develop active citizens who have a sense of belonging to the local, national, European and global communities. The course incorporates seven key concepts (democracy, rights and responsibilities, human dignity, interdependence, development, law and stewardship) and is taught through four units of study (The Individual and Citizenship; The Community; The State; Ireland and the World). In terms of its constitutional status, Northern Ireland is part of the UK, yet geographically it is part of the island of Ireland. For historical and political reasons it has a Unionist and Loyalist population (predominantly Protestant) that wishes to remain part of the UK and a Nationalist and Republican population (mainly Catholic) that seeks to be part of a unified Ireland. Competing loyaltiesbetween British and Irish identities have been a feature of the violent conflict in Northern Ireland for the past 30 years. However, the Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement in April 1998 led to the establishment of new, democratic structures as part of an emerging `peace process' and guaranteed equal status to British and Irish identities. This is the context in which current plans for the introduction of citizenship education in the Northern Ireland Curriculum are taking place.This article describes recent developments in civic and citizenship education in each of these situations, highlighting the differing political contexts in which they have arisen and how these have influenced definitions of civic and citizenship education as part of new curriculum programmes.

AB - The 1990s have seen a resurgence of interest in citizenship education in the UKand Ireland. Within the UK, interest in citizenship education has been fuelled by the Labour government's commitment to a process of devolution and the establishment of new legislative Assemblies in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. This has given rise to renewed debate on issues related to nationality, identity and citizenship in each of the constituent countries of the UK. Alongside this, there is a growing concern within each of these jurisdictions to understand how a sense of citizenship might be maintained within a context of increasing social, cultural and political diversity. In England in 1998 an Advisory Group on Citizenship, under the chairmanship of Professor Bernard Crick, issued its final report, Education forCitizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools. One outcome has been the introduction of citizenship education for pupils in all schools from September 2000 for 5- to 11-year-olds and from September 2002 for 11- to 16-year-olds. The English citizenship curriculum has three main strands (Social and moral responsibility; Community involvement; and Political literacy).The Republic of Ireland has had a longer involvement in the development of civic education. A pilot project between 1993 and 1996 led to the introduction of a new curriculum programme in Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE) in all secondary level schools from September 1997. CSPE is a course in citizenship based on human rights and social responsibilities. It aims to develop active citizens who have a sense of belonging to the local, national, European and global communities. The course incorporates seven key concepts (democracy, rights and responsibilities, human dignity, interdependence, development, law and stewardship) and is taught through four units of study (The Individual and Citizenship; The Community; The State; Ireland and the World). In terms of its constitutional status, Northern Ireland is part of the UK, yet geographically it is part of the island of Ireland. For historical and political reasons it has a Unionist and Loyalist population (predominantly Protestant) that wishes to remain part of the UK and a Nationalist and Republican population (mainly Catholic) that seeks to be part of a unified Ireland. Competing loyaltiesbetween British and Irish identities have been a feature of the violent conflict in Northern Ireland for the past 30 years. However, the Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement in April 1998 led to the establishment of new, democratic structures as part of an emerging `peace process' and guaranteed equal status to British and Irish identities. This is the context in which current plans for the introduction of citizenship education in the Northern Ireland Curriculum are taking place.This article describes recent developments in civic and citizenship education in each of these situations, highlighting the differing political contexts in which they have arisen and how these have influenced definitions of civic and citizenship education as part of new curriculum programmes.

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 179

EP - 192

JO - European Journal of Education

T2 - European Journal of Education

JF - European Journal of Education

SN - 0141-8211

IS - 2

ER -