Characterization of the brachial artery shear stress following walking exercise

Jaume Padilla, Ryan Harris, Lawrence D Rink, Janet P Wallace

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    29 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Habitual exercise provides repeated episodes of elevated vascular shearstress (SS), which may be a mechanism for repair of endothelial dysfunction in disease.Our aim was to determine the brachial artery SS during the 3–hour period followingsingle bouts of low, moderate, and high-intensity walking exercise. In a randomized crossover design, 14 men walked for 45 minutes on a treadmill at 25%, 50% and 75% of VO2peak separated by 2–7 days. Using Doppler ultrasonography, brachial artery SS was assessed immediately after exercise and then hourly for 3 hours. Highintensity walking elicited greater (p <0.05) post-exercise SS compared with low and moderate intensity. In addition, a 3 × 4 (intensity × time) ANOVA indicated an absence of interaction (p = 0.369) and a decline in post-exercise SS over time (p <0.0001) which was abolished after 2 hours. Thus, we found that brachial artery SS is greatestfollowing high-intensity walking and that the rate of decline in SS is similar across allwalking intensities.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages105-111
    JournalVascular Medicine
    Volume13
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Fingerprint

    Brachial Artery
    Walking
    Exercise
    Doppler Ultrasonography
    Cross-Over Studies
    Blood Vessels
    Analysis of Variance

    Keywords

    • Doppler ultrasonography
    • endothelial function
    • exercise intensity

    Cite this

    Padilla, Jaume ; Harris, Ryan ; Rink, Lawrence D ; Wallace, Janet P. / Characterization of the brachial artery shear stress following walking exercise. In: Vascular Medicine. 2008 ; Vol. 13. pp. 105-111.
    @article{522c285996f04e9cb89fa52c1e0d082c,
    title = "Characterization of the brachial artery shear stress following walking exercise",
    abstract = "Habitual exercise provides repeated episodes of elevated vascular shearstress (SS), which may be a mechanism for repair of endothelial dysfunction in disease.Our aim was to determine the brachial artery SS during the 3–hour period followingsingle bouts of low, moderate, and high-intensity walking exercise. In a randomized crossover design, 14 men walked for 45 minutes on a treadmill at 25{\%}, 50{\%} and 75{\%} of VO2peak separated by 2–7 days. Using Doppler ultrasonography, brachial artery SS was assessed immediately after exercise and then hourly for 3 hours. Highintensity walking elicited greater (p <0.05) post-exercise SS compared with low and moderate intensity. In addition, a 3 × 4 (intensity × time) ANOVA indicated an absence of interaction (p = 0.369) and a decline in post-exercise SS over time (p <0.0001) which was abolished after 2 hours. Thus, we found that brachial artery SS is greatestfollowing high-intensity walking and that the rate of decline in SS is similar across allwalking intensities.",
    keywords = "Doppler ultrasonography, endothelial function, exercise intensity",
    author = "Jaume Padilla and Ryan Harris and Rink, {Lawrence D} and Wallace, {Janet P}",
    note = "Reference text: 1 Ross, R. Atherosclerosis. An inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 115–128. 2 Devaraj, S, Jialal, I. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis. Int J Clin Lab Res 1996; 26: 178–184. 3 Gielen, S, Erbs, S, Linke, A, Mobius-Winkler, S, Schueler, G, Hambrecht, R. Home-based versus hospital-based exercise programs in patients with coronary artery disease: effects on coronary vasomotion. Am Heart J 2003; 145: e3–e6. 4 Gokce, N, Vita, J, Bader, D, et al. Effect of exercise on upper and lower extremity endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 90: 124–127. 5 Hambrecht, R, Fiehn, E, Weigl, C, et al. Regular physical exercise corrects endothelial dysfunction and improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 1998; 98: 2709–2715. 6 Hambrecht, R, Wolf, A, Gielen, S, et al. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 454–460. 7 Higashi, Y, Sasaki, S, Kurisu, S, et al. Regular aerobic exercise augments endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects. Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Circulation 1999; 100: 1194–1202. 8 Katz, SD, Yuen, J, Bijou, R, Lejemtel, TH. Training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in resistance vessels of patients with heart failure. J Appl Physiol 1997; 82: 1488–1492. 9 Lavrencic, A, Salobir, BG, Keber, I. Physical training improves flow-mediated dilation in patients with the polymetabolic syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20: 551–555. 10 Linke, A, Schoene, N, Gielen, S, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure: systemic effects of lower-limb exercise training. N Engl J Med 2001; 315: 1046–1051. 11 Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Dembo, L, Goodman, C, Taylor, R, Green, D. Exercise training, vascular function, and functional capacity in middle-aged subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 2022–2028. 12 Green, DJ, Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Taylor, R. Effect of exercise training on endothelium-derived nitric oxide function in humans. J Physiol 2004; 561: 1–25. 13 Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Taylor, R, Green, D. Exercise and the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Sports Med 2003; 33: 1013–1035. 14 Niebauer, J, Cooke, JP. Cardiovascular effects of exercise: role of endothelial shear stress. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 28: 1652–1660. 15 Nishida, K, Harrison, DG, Navas, JP, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the constitutive bovine aortic endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 2092–2096. 16 Uematsu, M, Ohara, Y, Navas, JP, et al. Regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression by shear stress. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: C1371–C1378. 17 Harrison, DG, Widder, J, Grumbach, I, Chen, W, Webber, M, Searles, C. Endothelial mechanotransduction, nitric oxide and vascular inflammation. J Intern Med 2006; 259: 351–363. 18 Saunders, NR, Pyke, KE, Tschakovsky, ME. Dynamic response characteristics of local muscle blood flow regulatory mechanisms in human forearm exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004; 98: 1286–1296. 19 Saunders, NR, Tschakovsky, ME. Evidence for a rapid vasodilatory contribution to immediate hyperemia in restto- mild and mild-to-moderate forearm exercise transitions in humans. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 1143–1151. 20 Shoemaker, JK, MacDonald, MJ, Hughson, RL. Time course of brachial artery diameter responses to rhythmic handgrip exercise in humans. Cardiovasc Res 1997; 35: 125–131. 21 Tschakovsky, ME, Rogers, AM, Pyke, KE, et al. Immediate exercise hyperemia in humans is contraction intensity dependent: evidence for a rapid vasodilation. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96: 639–644. 22 Van Beekvelt, MCP, Shoemaker, JK, Tschakovsky, ME, Hopman, MTE, Hughson, RL. Blood flow and muscle oxygen uptake at the onset and end of moderate and heavy dynamic forearm exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2001; 280: R1741–R1747. 23 Green, DJ, Bilsborough, W, Naylor, LH, et al. Comparison of forearm blood flow responses to incremental handgrip and cycle ergometer exercise: relative contribution of nitric oxide. J Physiol 2005; 562: 617–628. 24 Tanaka, H, Shimizu, S, Ohmori, F, et al. Increases in blood flow and shear stress to nonworking limbs during incremental exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 81–85. 25 Pyke, KE, Tschakovsky, ME. The relationship between shear stress and flow-mediated dilatation: implications for the assessment of endothelial function. J Physiol 2005; 568: 357–369. 26 DeSouza, CA, Shaprio, LF, Clevenger, CM, et al. Regular aerobic exercise prevents and restores age-related declines in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy men. Circulation 2000; 102: 1351–1357. 27 American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 28 Borg, GA. Perceived exertion: a note on ‘history’ and methods. Med Sci Sports 1973; 5: 90–93. 29 Harris, RA, Padilla, J, Rink, LD, Wallace, JP. Variability of flow-mediated dilation measurements with repetitive reactive hyperemia. Vasc Med 2006; 11: 1–6. 30 Gnasso, A, Carallo, C, Irace, C, et al. Association between intima-media thickness and wall shear stress in common carotid arteries in healthy male subjects. Circulation 1996; 94: 3257–3262. 31 Goto, C, Higashi, Y, Kimura, M, et al. Effect of different intensities of exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide and oxidative stress. Circulation 2003; 108: 530–535. 32 Niess, AM, Dickhuth, H, Northoff, H, Fehrenbach, E. Free radicals and oxidative stress in exerciseimmunological aspects. Exerc Immunol Rev 1999; 5: 22–56. 33 Ji, LL. Antioxidants and oxidative stress in exercise. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999; 222: 283–290. 34 Sies, H. Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Exp Physiol 1997; 82: 291–295. 35 Matsuoka, H. Endothelial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress in human. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001; 54: S65–S72. 36 Betik, AC, Luckham, VB, Hughson, RL. Flow-mediated dilation in human brachial artery after different circulatory occlusion conditions. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004; 286: H442–H448. 37 Duffy, ST, Castle, SF, Harper, RW, Meredith, IT. Contribution of vasodilator prostanoids and nitric oxide to resting flow, metabolic vasodilation, and flow-mediated dilation in human coronary circulation. Circulation 1999; 100: 1951– 1957. 38 Joannides, R, Haefeli, WE, Linder, L, et al. Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-mediated dilation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo. Circulation 1995; 91: 1314–1319. 39 Pyke, KE, Dwyer, EM, Tschakovsky, ME. Impact of controlling shear rate on flow-mediated dilation responses in the brachial artery of humans. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 499–508. 40 Yashiro, Y, Ohhashi, T. Flow- and agonist-mediated nitric oxide- and prostaglandin-dependent dilation in spinal arteries. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: H2217–H2223.",
    year = "2008",
    doi = "10.1177/1358863x07086671",
    language = "English",
    volume = "13",
    pages = "105--111",
    journal = "Vascular Medicine",
    issn = "1358-863X",

    }

    Characterization of the brachial artery shear stress following walking exercise. / Padilla, Jaume; Harris, Ryan; Rink, Lawrence D; Wallace, Janet P.

    In: Vascular Medicine, Vol. 13, 2008, p. 105-111.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Characterization of the brachial artery shear stress following walking exercise

    AU - Padilla, Jaume

    AU - Harris, Ryan

    AU - Rink, Lawrence D

    AU - Wallace, Janet P

    N1 - Reference text: 1 Ross, R. Atherosclerosis. An inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 115–128. 2 Devaraj, S, Jialal, I. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis. Int J Clin Lab Res 1996; 26: 178–184. 3 Gielen, S, Erbs, S, Linke, A, Mobius-Winkler, S, Schueler, G, Hambrecht, R. Home-based versus hospital-based exercise programs in patients with coronary artery disease: effects on coronary vasomotion. Am Heart J 2003; 145: e3–e6. 4 Gokce, N, Vita, J, Bader, D, et al. Effect of exercise on upper and lower extremity endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 90: 124–127. 5 Hambrecht, R, Fiehn, E, Weigl, C, et al. Regular physical exercise corrects endothelial dysfunction and improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 1998; 98: 2709–2715. 6 Hambrecht, R, Wolf, A, Gielen, S, et al. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 454–460. 7 Higashi, Y, Sasaki, S, Kurisu, S, et al. Regular aerobic exercise augments endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects. Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Circulation 1999; 100: 1194–1202. 8 Katz, SD, Yuen, J, Bijou, R, Lejemtel, TH. Training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in resistance vessels of patients with heart failure. J Appl Physiol 1997; 82: 1488–1492. 9 Lavrencic, A, Salobir, BG, Keber, I. Physical training improves flow-mediated dilation in patients with the polymetabolic syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20: 551–555. 10 Linke, A, Schoene, N, Gielen, S, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure: systemic effects of lower-limb exercise training. N Engl J Med 2001; 315: 1046–1051. 11 Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Dembo, L, Goodman, C, Taylor, R, Green, D. Exercise training, vascular function, and functional capacity in middle-aged subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 2022–2028. 12 Green, DJ, Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Taylor, R. Effect of exercise training on endothelium-derived nitric oxide function in humans. J Physiol 2004; 561: 1–25. 13 Maiorana, A, O’Driscoll, G, Taylor, R, Green, D. Exercise and the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Sports Med 2003; 33: 1013–1035. 14 Niebauer, J, Cooke, JP. Cardiovascular effects of exercise: role of endothelial shear stress. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 28: 1652–1660. 15 Nishida, K, Harrison, DG, Navas, JP, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the constitutive bovine aortic endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 2092–2096. 16 Uematsu, M, Ohara, Y, Navas, JP, et al. Regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression by shear stress. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: C1371–C1378. 17 Harrison, DG, Widder, J, Grumbach, I, Chen, W, Webber, M, Searles, C. Endothelial mechanotransduction, nitric oxide and vascular inflammation. J Intern Med 2006; 259: 351–363. 18 Saunders, NR, Pyke, KE, Tschakovsky, ME. Dynamic response characteristics of local muscle blood flow regulatory mechanisms in human forearm exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004; 98: 1286–1296. 19 Saunders, NR, Tschakovsky, ME. Evidence for a rapid vasodilatory contribution to immediate hyperemia in restto- mild and mild-to-moderate forearm exercise transitions in humans. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 1143–1151. 20 Shoemaker, JK, MacDonald, MJ, Hughson, RL. Time course of brachial artery diameter responses to rhythmic handgrip exercise in humans. Cardiovasc Res 1997; 35: 125–131. 21 Tschakovsky, ME, Rogers, AM, Pyke, KE, et al. Immediate exercise hyperemia in humans is contraction intensity dependent: evidence for a rapid vasodilation. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96: 639–644. 22 Van Beekvelt, MCP, Shoemaker, JK, Tschakovsky, ME, Hopman, MTE, Hughson, RL. Blood flow and muscle oxygen uptake at the onset and end of moderate and heavy dynamic forearm exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2001; 280: R1741–R1747. 23 Green, DJ, Bilsborough, W, Naylor, LH, et al. Comparison of forearm blood flow responses to incremental handgrip and cycle ergometer exercise: relative contribution of nitric oxide. J Physiol 2005; 562: 617–628. 24 Tanaka, H, Shimizu, S, Ohmori, F, et al. Increases in blood flow and shear stress to nonworking limbs during incremental exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 81–85. 25 Pyke, KE, Tschakovsky, ME. The relationship between shear stress and flow-mediated dilatation: implications for the assessment of endothelial function. J Physiol 2005; 568: 357–369. 26 DeSouza, CA, Shaprio, LF, Clevenger, CM, et al. Regular aerobic exercise prevents and restores age-related declines in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy men. Circulation 2000; 102: 1351–1357. 27 American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 28 Borg, GA. Perceived exertion: a note on ‘history’ and methods. Med Sci Sports 1973; 5: 90–93. 29 Harris, RA, Padilla, J, Rink, LD, Wallace, JP. Variability of flow-mediated dilation measurements with repetitive reactive hyperemia. Vasc Med 2006; 11: 1–6. 30 Gnasso, A, Carallo, C, Irace, C, et al. Association between intima-media thickness and wall shear stress in common carotid arteries in healthy male subjects. Circulation 1996; 94: 3257–3262. 31 Goto, C, Higashi, Y, Kimura, M, et al. Effect of different intensities of exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide and oxidative stress. Circulation 2003; 108: 530–535. 32 Niess, AM, Dickhuth, H, Northoff, H, Fehrenbach, E. Free radicals and oxidative stress in exerciseimmunological aspects. Exerc Immunol Rev 1999; 5: 22–56. 33 Ji, LL. Antioxidants and oxidative stress in exercise. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999; 222: 283–290. 34 Sies, H. Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Exp Physiol 1997; 82: 291–295. 35 Matsuoka, H. Endothelial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress in human. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001; 54: S65–S72. 36 Betik, AC, Luckham, VB, Hughson, RL. Flow-mediated dilation in human brachial artery after different circulatory occlusion conditions. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004; 286: H442–H448. 37 Duffy, ST, Castle, SF, Harper, RW, Meredith, IT. Contribution of vasodilator prostanoids and nitric oxide to resting flow, metabolic vasodilation, and flow-mediated dilation in human coronary circulation. Circulation 1999; 100: 1951– 1957. 38 Joannides, R, Haefeli, WE, Linder, L, et al. Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-mediated dilation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo. Circulation 1995; 91: 1314–1319. 39 Pyke, KE, Dwyer, EM, Tschakovsky, ME. Impact of controlling shear rate on flow-mediated dilation responses in the brachial artery of humans. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 499–508. 40 Yashiro, Y, Ohhashi, T. Flow- and agonist-mediated nitric oxide- and prostaglandin-dependent dilation in spinal arteries. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: H2217–H2223.

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - Habitual exercise provides repeated episodes of elevated vascular shearstress (SS), which may be a mechanism for repair of endothelial dysfunction in disease.Our aim was to determine the brachial artery SS during the 3–hour period followingsingle bouts of low, moderate, and high-intensity walking exercise. In a randomized crossover design, 14 men walked for 45 minutes on a treadmill at 25%, 50% and 75% of VO2peak separated by 2–7 days. Using Doppler ultrasonography, brachial artery SS was assessed immediately after exercise and then hourly for 3 hours. Highintensity walking elicited greater (p <0.05) post-exercise SS compared with low and moderate intensity. In addition, a 3 × 4 (intensity × time) ANOVA indicated an absence of interaction (p = 0.369) and a decline in post-exercise SS over time (p <0.0001) which was abolished after 2 hours. Thus, we found that brachial artery SS is greatestfollowing high-intensity walking and that the rate of decline in SS is similar across allwalking intensities.

    AB - Habitual exercise provides repeated episodes of elevated vascular shearstress (SS), which may be a mechanism for repair of endothelial dysfunction in disease.Our aim was to determine the brachial artery SS during the 3–hour period followingsingle bouts of low, moderate, and high-intensity walking exercise. In a randomized crossover design, 14 men walked for 45 minutes on a treadmill at 25%, 50% and 75% of VO2peak separated by 2–7 days. Using Doppler ultrasonography, brachial artery SS was assessed immediately after exercise and then hourly for 3 hours. Highintensity walking elicited greater (p <0.05) post-exercise SS compared with low and moderate intensity. In addition, a 3 × 4 (intensity × time) ANOVA indicated an absence of interaction (p = 0.369) and a decline in post-exercise SS over time (p <0.0001) which was abolished after 2 hours. Thus, we found that brachial artery SS is greatestfollowing high-intensity walking and that the rate of decline in SS is similar across allwalking intensities.

    KW - Doppler ultrasonography

    KW - endothelial function

    KW - exercise intensity

    U2 - 10.1177/1358863x07086671

    DO - 10.1177/1358863x07086671

    M3 - Article

    VL - 13

    SP - 105

    EP - 111

    JO - Vascular Medicine

    T2 - Vascular Medicine

    JF - Vascular Medicine

    SN - 1358-863X

    ER -