Changes in Player Activity Profiles following the 2015 FIH Rule Changes in Elite Women’s Hockey

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the player activity profiles of elite international womenhockey players pre (2014) and post (2015) the 2015 FIH match rule changes at team andpositional levels. The match activity profiles (n=400) of 19 female hockey players (Age 23±4years, mass 63.6±5.5 kg, VO2max 57±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2014, 58±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2015)were recorded during competitive international matches in 2014 (match n=12) and 2015(match n=13) using 10Hz GPS units. The practical utility of an effect was only classified assubstantial when there was a >75% likelihood that the ±90% CI of the ES was equal to orgreater than the small (ES ± 0.2) reference value. Mean match time decreased by over twominutes from 71.72±1.38 to 69.40±4.72mins. There were increases at the team level inrelative substitutions (SUB), relative distance (RD), High Speed Running (HSR - 3.08-5.27m·s-1) and surges (S), with a fall in Low Speed Running (LSR- 0-3.05m·s-1) between2014 and 2015. There were no changes in the between-position differences observed from2014 to 2015. Within-positions, there were relative increases in RD for all positions, HSRand S for midfield, and in SUB and S in forwards. The 2015 FIH rule changes appear to haveincreased the general intensity of international women’s hockey. However the different facetsof physical performance did not change uniformly across team positions. Therefore specificmodifications to conditioning practises for each position may be warranted to moreaccurately reflect match demands.
LanguageEnglish
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
VolumePAP
Early online date11 Dec 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Dec 2017

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Hockey
Running
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Keywords

  • Female
  • GPS
  • Hockey
  • Rules

Cite this

@article{165c784a9179427fb83ec749f49a9735,
title = "Changes in Player Activity Profiles following the 2015 FIH Rule Changes in Elite Women’s Hockey",
abstract = "The aim of this study was to compare the player activity profiles of elite international womenhockey players pre (2014) and post (2015) the 2015 FIH match rule changes at team andpositional levels. The match activity profiles (n=400) of 19 female hockey players (Age 23±4years, mass 63.6±5.5 kg, VO2max 57±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2014, 58±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2015)were recorded during competitive international matches in 2014 (match n=12) and 2015(match n=13) using 10Hz GPS units. The practical utility of an effect was only classified assubstantial when there was a >75{\%} likelihood that the ±90{\%} CI of the ES was equal to orgreater than the small (ES ± 0.2) reference value. Mean match time decreased by over twominutes from 71.72±1.38 to 69.40±4.72mins. There were increases at the team level inrelative substitutions (SUB), relative distance (RD), High Speed Running (HSR - 3.08-5.27m·s-1) and surges (S), with a fall in Low Speed Running (LSR- 0-3.05m·s-1) between2014 and 2015. There were no changes in the between-position differences observed from2014 to 2015. Within-positions, there were relative increases in RD for all positions, HSRand S for midfield, and in SUB and S in forwards. The 2015 FIH rule changes appear to haveincreased the general intensity of international women’s hockey. However the different facetsof physical performance did not change uniformly across team positions. Therefore specificmodifications to conditioning practises for each position may be warranted to moreaccurately reflect match demands.",
keywords = "Female, GPS, Hockey, Rules",
author = "Gerard McMahon and Rodney Kennedy",
note = "Reference text: 1. Aughey RJ. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6: 295-310, 2011. 2. Batterham AM and Hopkins WG. Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 1: 50-57, 2006. 3. Boyd LJ, Ball K, and Aughey RJ. The reliability of MinimaxX accelerometers for measuring physical activity in Australian football. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6: 311-321, 2011. 4. Boyd LJ, Ball K, and Aughey RJ. Quantifying external load in Australian football matches and training using accelerometers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 8: 44-51, 2013. 5. Castellano J, Casamichana D, Calleja-Gonz{\'a}lez J, San Rom{\'a}n J, and Ostojic SM. Reliability and accuracy of 10 Hz GPS devices for short-distance exercise. J Sports Sci Med 10: 233-234, 2011. 6. Cummins C, Orr R, O’Connor H, and West C. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review. Sports Med 43: 1025- 1042, 2013. 7. Cunniffe B, Proctor W, Baker JS, and Davies B. An evaluation of the physiological demands of elite rugby union using global positioning system tracking software. J Strength Con Res 23: 1195-1203, 2009. 8. FIH. Rules of Hockey including explanations. 2014. 9. Gabbett TJ. GPS analysis of elite women's field hockey training and competition. J Strength Con Res 24: 1321-1324, 2010. 10. Gabbett TJ, Jenkins DG, and Abernethy B. Physical demands of professional rugby league training and competition using microtechnology. J Sci Med Sport 15: 80-86, 2012. 11. Gray AJ, Jenkins D, Andrews MH, Taaffe DR, and Glover ML. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring distance travelled in field-based team sports. J Sports Sci 28: 1319-1325, 2010. 12. Hopkins W. A spreadsheet for analysis of straightforward controlled trials. Sportscience 7: 15, 2003. 13. Hopkins W, Marshall S, Batterham A, and Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41: 3, 2009. 14. Jennings DH, Cormack SJ, Coutts AJ, and Aughey RJ. International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level counterparts. J Strength Con Res 26: 947-952, 2012. 15. Johnston RJ, Watsford ML, Kelly SJ, Pine MJ, and Spurrs RW. Validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units for assessing athlete movement demands. J Strength Con Res 28: 1649-1655, 2014. 16. Lythe J and Kilding A. Physical demands and physiological responses during elite field hockey. Int J Sports Med 32: 523-528, 2011. 17. Lythe J and Kilding AE. The effect of substitution frequency on the physical and technical outputs of strikers during field hockey match play. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 13: 848-859, 2013. 18. MacLeod H, Morris J, Nevill A, and Sunderland C. The validity of a non-differential global positioning system for assessing player movement patterns in field hockey. J Sports Sci 27: 121-128, 2009. 19. Macutkiewicz D and Sunderland C. The use of GPS to evaluate activity profiles of elite women hockey players during match-play. J Sports Sci 29: 967-973, 2011. 20. Mooney M, O’Brien B, Cormack S, Coutts A, Berry J, and Young W. The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football: a mediation approach. J Sci Med Sport 14: 447-452, 2011. 21. Portas MD, Harley JA, Barnes CA, and Rush CJ. The validity and reliability of 1-Hz and 5-Hz global positioning systems for linear, multidirectional, and soccer-specific activities. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 5: 448-458, 2010. 22. Scott MT, Scott TJ, and Kelly VG. The validity and Reliability of Global Positioning Systems In Team Sport: A Brief Review. J Strength Con Res 30: 1470-1490, 2016. 23. Spencer M, Lawrence S, Rechichi C, Bishop D, Dawson B, and Goodman C. Time– motion analysis of elite field hockey, with special reference to repeated-sprint activity. J Sports Sci 22: 843-850, 2004. 24. Varley MC, Fairweather IH, and Aughey1, Robert J. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion. J Sports Sci 30: 121-127, 2012. 25. White AD and MacFarlane N. Time-on-pitch or full-game GPS analysis procedures for elite field hockey. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 8: 549-555, 2013. 26. White AD and MacFarlane NG. Analysis of international competition and training in men's field hockey by global positioning system and inertial sensor technology. J Strength Con Res 29: 137-143, 2015.",
year = "2017",
month = "12",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1519/JSC.0000000000002405",
language = "English",
volume = "PAP",
journal = "Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research",
issn = "1064-8011",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Changes in Player Activity Profiles following the 2015 FIH Rule Changes in Elite Women’s Hockey

AU - McMahon, Gerard

AU - Kennedy, Rodney

N1 - Reference text: 1. Aughey RJ. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6: 295-310, 2011. 2. Batterham AM and Hopkins WG. Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 1: 50-57, 2006. 3. Boyd LJ, Ball K, and Aughey RJ. The reliability of MinimaxX accelerometers for measuring physical activity in Australian football. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6: 311-321, 2011. 4. Boyd LJ, Ball K, and Aughey RJ. Quantifying external load in Australian football matches and training using accelerometers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 8: 44-51, 2013. 5. Castellano J, Casamichana D, Calleja-González J, San Román J, and Ostojic SM. Reliability and accuracy of 10 Hz GPS devices for short-distance exercise. J Sports Sci Med 10: 233-234, 2011. 6. Cummins C, Orr R, O’Connor H, and West C. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review. Sports Med 43: 1025- 1042, 2013. 7. Cunniffe B, Proctor W, Baker JS, and Davies B. An evaluation of the physiological demands of elite rugby union using global positioning system tracking software. J Strength Con Res 23: 1195-1203, 2009. 8. FIH. Rules of Hockey including explanations. 2014. 9. Gabbett TJ. GPS analysis of elite women's field hockey training and competition. J Strength Con Res 24: 1321-1324, 2010. 10. Gabbett TJ, Jenkins DG, and Abernethy B. Physical demands of professional rugby league training and competition using microtechnology. J Sci Med Sport 15: 80-86, 2012. 11. Gray AJ, Jenkins D, Andrews MH, Taaffe DR, and Glover ML. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring distance travelled in field-based team sports. J Sports Sci 28: 1319-1325, 2010. 12. Hopkins W. A spreadsheet for analysis of straightforward controlled trials. Sportscience 7: 15, 2003. 13. Hopkins W, Marshall S, Batterham A, and Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41: 3, 2009. 14. Jennings DH, Cormack SJ, Coutts AJ, and Aughey RJ. International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level counterparts. J Strength Con Res 26: 947-952, 2012. 15. Johnston RJ, Watsford ML, Kelly SJ, Pine MJ, and Spurrs RW. Validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units for assessing athlete movement demands. J Strength Con Res 28: 1649-1655, 2014. 16. Lythe J and Kilding A. Physical demands and physiological responses during elite field hockey. Int J Sports Med 32: 523-528, 2011. 17. Lythe J and Kilding AE. The effect of substitution frequency on the physical and technical outputs of strikers during field hockey match play. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 13: 848-859, 2013. 18. MacLeod H, Morris J, Nevill A, and Sunderland C. The validity of a non-differential global positioning system for assessing player movement patterns in field hockey. J Sports Sci 27: 121-128, 2009. 19. Macutkiewicz D and Sunderland C. The use of GPS to evaluate activity profiles of elite women hockey players during match-play. J Sports Sci 29: 967-973, 2011. 20. Mooney M, O’Brien B, Cormack S, Coutts A, Berry J, and Young W. The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football: a mediation approach. J Sci Med Sport 14: 447-452, 2011. 21. Portas MD, Harley JA, Barnes CA, and Rush CJ. The validity and reliability of 1-Hz and 5-Hz global positioning systems for linear, multidirectional, and soccer-specific activities. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 5: 448-458, 2010. 22. Scott MT, Scott TJ, and Kelly VG. The validity and Reliability of Global Positioning Systems In Team Sport: A Brief Review. J Strength Con Res 30: 1470-1490, 2016. 23. Spencer M, Lawrence S, Rechichi C, Bishop D, Dawson B, and Goodman C. Time– motion analysis of elite field hockey, with special reference to repeated-sprint activity. J Sports Sci 22: 843-850, 2004. 24. Varley MC, Fairweather IH, and Aughey1, Robert J. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion. J Sports Sci 30: 121-127, 2012. 25. White AD and MacFarlane N. Time-on-pitch or full-game GPS analysis procedures for elite field hockey. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 8: 549-555, 2013. 26. White AD and MacFarlane NG. Analysis of international competition and training in men's field hockey by global positioning system and inertial sensor technology. J Strength Con Res 29: 137-143, 2015.

PY - 2017/12/11

Y1 - 2017/12/11

N2 - The aim of this study was to compare the player activity profiles of elite international womenhockey players pre (2014) and post (2015) the 2015 FIH match rule changes at team andpositional levels. The match activity profiles (n=400) of 19 female hockey players (Age 23±4years, mass 63.6±5.5 kg, VO2max 57±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2014, 58±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2015)were recorded during competitive international matches in 2014 (match n=12) and 2015(match n=13) using 10Hz GPS units. The practical utility of an effect was only classified assubstantial when there was a >75% likelihood that the ±90% CI of the ES was equal to orgreater than the small (ES ± 0.2) reference value. Mean match time decreased by over twominutes from 71.72±1.38 to 69.40±4.72mins. There were increases at the team level inrelative substitutions (SUB), relative distance (RD), High Speed Running (HSR - 3.08-5.27m·s-1) and surges (S), with a fall in Low Speed Running (LSR- 0-3.05m·s-1) between2014 and 2015. There were no changes in the between-position differences observed from2014 to 2015. Within-positions, there were relative increases in RD for all positions, HSRand S for midfield, and in SUB and S in forwards. The 2015 FIH rule changes appear to haveincreased the general intensity of international women’s hockey. However the different facetsof physical performance did not change uniformly across team positions. Therefore specificmodifications to conditioning practises for each position may be warranted to moreaccurately reflect match demands.

AB - The aim of this study was to compare the player activity profiles of elite international womenhockey players pre (2014) and post (2015) the 2015 FIH match rule changes at team andpositional levels. The match activity profiles (n=400) of 19 female hockey players (Age 23±4years, mass 63.6±5.5 kg, VO2max 57±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2014, 58±6 ml·kg-1·min-1 in 2015)were recorded during competitive international matches in 2014 (match n=12) and 2015(match n=13) using 10Hz GPS units. The practical utility of an effect was only classified assubstantial when there was a >75% likelihood that the ±90% CI of the ES was equal to orgreater than the small (ES ± 0.2) reference value. Mean match time decreased by over twominutes from 71.72±1.38 to 69.40±4.72mins. There were increases at the team level inrelative substitutions (SUB), relative distance (RD), High Speed Running (HSR - 3.08-5.27m·s-1) and surges (S), with a fall in Low Speed Running (LSR- 0-3.05m·s-1) between2014 and 2015. There were no changes in the between-position differences observed from2014 to 2015. Within-positions, there were relative increases in RD for all positions, HSRand S for midfield, and in SUB and S in forwards. The 2015 FIH rule changes appear to haveincreased the general intensity of international women’s hockey. However the different facetsof physical performance did not change uniformly across team positions. Therefore specificmodifications to conditioning practises for each position may be warranted to moreaccurately reflect match demands.

KW - Female

KW - GPS

KW - Hockey

KW - Rules

U2 - 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002405

DO - 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002405

M3 - Article

VL - PAP

JO - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

T2 - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

JF - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

SN - 1064-8011

ER -