Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing

Andrew Morrison, Denise McGrath, Eric S Wallace

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper investigates the planarity and changes in club head trajectory throughout the golf swing. Four male, highly skilled golfers were captured hitting 40 shots using an optical motion capture system. Planes were fitted to four phases of the golf swing for comparison across the 40 shots in each player. While trajectory variability was seen to increase from takeaway to the top of the backswing, it then decreased again leading up to impact. The correlation between the delivery horizontal plane angle and the other planes decreased the further back through the swing the plane was situated. This finding suggests that although changes to the club head trajectory in the early part of the swing may have an effect in delivery to the ball, this effect is stronger the further through the swing the change is made. This paper describes the use of a novel method for quantifying changes in club head trajectory through the golf swing.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
PublisherElsevier
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2014
EventThe 2014 conference of the International Sports Engineering Association -
Duration: 1 Jan 2014 → …

Conference

ConferenceThe 2014 conference of the International Sports Engineering Association
Period1/01/14 → …

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Keywords

  • Golf swing
  • biomechanics
  • swing plate
  • variability

Cite this

Morrison, A., McGrath, D., & Wallace, E. S. (2014). Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. In Unknown Host Publication Elsevier.
Morrison, Andrew ; McGrath, Denise ; Wallace, Eric S. / Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. Unknown Host Publication. Elsevier, 2014.
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title = "Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing",
abstract = "This paper investigates the planarity and changes in club head trajectory throughout the golf swing. Four male, highly skilled golfers were captured hitting 40 shots using an optical motion capture system. Planes were fitted to four phases of the golf swing for comparison across the 40 shots in each player. While trajectory variability was seen to increase from takeaway to the top of the backswing, it then decreased again leading up to impact. The correlation between the delivery horizontal plane angle and the other planes decreased the further back through the swing the plane was situated. This finding suggests that although changes to the club head trajectory in the early part of the swing may have an effect in delivery to the ball, this effect is stronger the further through the swing the change is made. This paper describes the use of a novel method for quantifying changes in club head trajectory through the golf swing.",
keywords = "Golf swing, biomechanics, swing plate, variability",
author = "Andrew Morrison and Denise McGrath and Wallace, {Eric S}",
note = "Reference text: Bootsma, R.J., Van Wieringen, P.C., 1990. Timing an attacking forehand drive in table tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16, 1, 21-29. Coleman, S., Anderson, D., 2007. An examination of the planar nature of golf club motion in the swings of experienced players. Journal of Sports Sciences 25, 7, 739–748. Coleman, S.G., Rankin, A.J., 2005. A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences 23, 3, 227–234. Horan, S.A., Evan, K., Kavanagh, J.J., 2011. Movement variability in the golf swing of male and female skilled golfers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 43,8, 1474–1483. Hume, P.A., Keogh, J., Reid, J., 2005. The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots. Sports Medicine. 35, 5, 429–449. Keogh, J.W.L., Hume, P.A., 2012. Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance. Sports Biomechanics 11, 2, 288–309. Koenig, G., Tamres, M., Mann, R.W., 1994. The biomechanics of the shoe-ground interaction in golf. In Cochran, A.J., Farrally, M. (Eds.) Science and Golf II. 1994 Kwon, Y-H., Como, C.S., Singhal, K., Lee, S., Han, K.H., 2012. Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points. Sports Biomechanics 11, 2, 127–148. Lee, D.N., Roly, J., Thomson, J.A., 1982. Regulation of gait in long jumping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 8, 3, 448–459. PGA, 2012. PGA Study Guide: Golf Coaching I. The Professional Golfers Association Ltd. Scott, M.A., Li, F-X., Davids, K., 1997. Expertise and the regulation of gait in the approach phase of the long jump. Journal of Sports Sciences 15, 597–605. Smith, A., Roberts, J., Wallace, E., Forrester, S., 2012. Professional golf coaches’ perceptions of the key technical parameters in the golf swing. Procedia Engineering 34, 224–229. Sweeney, M., Mills, P., Alderson, J., Elliot, B., 2013. The influence of club-head kinematics on early ball flight characteristics in the golf drive. Sports Biomechanics 12,3, 247–258. Tucker, C.B., Anderson, R., Kenny, I.C., 2013. Is outcome related to movement variability in golf? Sports Biomechanics. 1–12. Williams, K.R., Sih, B.L. 2002. Changes in golf clubface orientation following impact with the ball. Sports Engineering. 5, 2, 65–80. Wiren, G. (1991) The PGA Manual of Golf: The Professional’s Way to Play Better Golf. Hungry Minds Inc, U.S.",
year = "2014",
language = "English",
booktitle = "Unknown Host Publication",
publisher = "Elsevier",
address = "Netherlands",

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Morrison, A, McGrath, D & Wallace, ES 2014, Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. in Unknown Host Publication. Elsevier, The 2014 conference of the International Sports Engineering Association, 1/01/14.

Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. / Morrison, Andrew; McGrath, Denise; Wallace, Eric S.

Unknown Host Publication. Elsevier, 2014.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing

AU - Morrison, Andrew

AU - McGrath, Denise

AU - Wallace, Eric S

N1 - Reference text: Bootsma, R.J., Van Wieringen, P.C., 1990. Timing an attacking forehand drive in table tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16, 1, 21-29. Coleman, S., Anderson, D., 2007. An examination of the planar nature of golf club motion in the swings of experienced players. Journal of Sports Sciences 25, 7, 739–748. Coleman, S.G., Rankin, A.J., 2005. A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences 23, 3, 227–234. Horan, S.A., Evan, K., Kavanagh, J.J., 2011. Movement variability in the golf swing of male and female skilled golfers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 43,8, 1474–1483. Hume, P.A., Keogh, J., Reid, J., 2005. The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots. Sports Medicine. 35, 5, 429–449. Keogh, J.W.L., Hume, P.A., 2012. Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance. Sports Biomechanics 11, 2, 288–309. Koenig, G., Tamres, M., Mann, R.W., 1994. The biomechanics of the shoe-ground interaction in golf. In Cochran, A.J., Farrally, M. (Eds.) Science and Golf II. 1994 Kwon, Y-H., Como, C.S., Singhal, K., Lee, S., Han, K.H., 2012. Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points. Sports Biomechanics 11, 2, 127–148. Lee, D.N., Roly, J., Thomson, J.A., 1982. Regulation of gait in long jumping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 8, 3, 448–459. PGA, 2012. PGA Study Guide: Golf Coaching I. The Professional Golfers Association Ltd. Scott, M.A., Li, F-X., Davids, K., 1997. Expertise and the regulation of gait in the approach phase of the long jump. Journal of Sports Sciences 15, 597–605. Smith, A., Roberts, J., Wallace, E., Forrester, S., 2012. Professional golf coaches’ perceptions of the key technical parameters in the golf swing. Procedia Engineering 34, 224–229. Sweeney, M., Mills, P., Alderson, J., Elliot, B., 2013. The influence of club-head kinematics on early ball flight characteristics in the golf drive. Sports Biomechanics 12,3, 247–258. Tucker, C.B., Anderson, R., Kenny, I.C., 2013. Is outcome related to movement variability in golf? Sports Biomechanics. 1–12. Williams, K.R., Sih, B.L. 2002. Changes in golf clubface orientation following impact with the ball. Sports Engineering. 5, 2, 65–80. Wiren, G. (1991) The PGA Manual of Golf: The Professional’s Way to Play Better Golf. Hungry Minds Inc, U.S.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - This paper investigates the planarity and changes in club head trajectory throughout the golf swing. Four male, highly skilled golfers were captured hitting 40 shots using an optical motion capture system. Planes were fitted to four phases of the golf swing for comparison across the 40 shots in each player. While trajectory variability was seen to increase from takeaway to the top of the backswing, it then decreased again leading up to impact. The correlation between the delivery horizontal plane angle and the other planes decreased the further back through the swing the plane was situated. This finding suggests that although changes to the club head trajectory in the early part of the swing may have an effect in delivery to the ball, this effect is stronger the further through the swing the change is made. This paper describes the use of a novel method for quantifying changes in club head trajectory through the golf swing.

AB - This paper investigates the planarity and changes in club head trajectory throughout the golf swing. Four male, highly skilled golfers were captured hitting 40 shots using an optical motion capture system. Planes were fitted to four phases of the golf swing for comparison across the 40 shots in each player. While trajectory variability was seen to increase from takeaway to the top of the backswing, it then decreased again leading up to impact. The correlation between the delivery horizontal plane angle and the other planes decreased the further back through the swing the plane was situated. This finding suggests that although changes to the club head trajectory in the early part of the swing may have an effect in delivery to the ball, this effect is stronger the further through the swing the change is made. This paper describes the use of a novel method for quantifying changes in club head trajectory through the golf swing.

KW - Golf swing

KW - biomechanics

KW - swing plate

KW - variability

M3 - Conference contribution

BT - Unknown Host Publication

PB - Elsevier

ER -

Morrison A, McGrath D, Wallace ES. Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. In Unknown Host Publication. Elsevier. 2014