Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a neuropeptide initially isolated from porcine stomach, shares sequence similarity with bombesin. GRP and its receptors are present in the brains and peripheral tissues of several species of teleost fish, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of this peptide in these vertebrates. The goal of this study was to compare the central and peripheral actions of picomolar doses of trout GRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanesthetized rainbow trout. Compared to vehicle, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of GRP (1-50 pmol) significantly elevated the ventilation rate (fV) and the ventilation amplitude (VAMP), and consequently the total ventilation (VTOT). The maximum hyperventilatory effect of GRP (VTOT: +225%), observed at a dose of 50 pmol, was mostly due to its stimulatory action on VAMP (+170%) rather than fV (+20%). In addition, ICV GRP (50 pmol) produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA) (+35%) and in heart rate (fH) (+25%). Intra-arterial injections of GRP (5-100 pmol) were without sustained effect on the ventilatory variables but produced sporadic and transient increases in ventilatory movement at doses of 50 and 100 pmol. At these doses, GRP elevated PDA by +20% but only the 50 pmol dose significantly increased HR (+15%). In conclusion, our study suggests that endogenous GRP within the brain of the trout may act as a potent neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the regulation of cardioventilatory functions. In the periphery, endogenous GRP may act as locally-acting and/or circulating neurohormone with an involvement in vasoregulatory mechanisms.
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- Central GRP
- Intracerebroventricular injection