Cell Stories: Informal learning in a custodial establishment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Concern has been growing in recent years about the continued non-participation of males in the educational process (Gillborn and Kirton, 2000; Burke, 2006; Quinn et al., 2006). This pattern is replicated within the prison environment where, despite free education provision and a range of curriculum options (Parker et al., 2000), inmates, many of whom have rejected learning at the earliest opportunity, still do not avail themselves of the educational opportunities on offer (Levy, 2004). This article presents some key findings from a unique ethnographical study conducted with male prisoners in a maximum security prison in Northern Ireland, indicating that a culture of informal learning exists on the wings, separate and distinct from the formal educational programmes offered by the authorities. The article discusses ways of channelling and enhancing these informal learning practices in ways which might increase future participation in formal educational provision.
LanguageEnglish
Pages18-29
JournalWidening Participation and Lifelong Learning
Volume10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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informal learning
correctional institution
educational opportunity
prisoner
educational program
curriculum
participation
learning
education
educational process

Cite this

@article{5b4f8da5c0a0487a9c2e4df7eb770659,
title = "Cell Stories: Informal learning in a custodial establishment",
abstract = "Concern has been growing in recent years about the continued non-participation of males in the educational process (Gillborn and Kirton, 2000; Burke, 2006; Quinn et al., 2006). This pattern is replicated within the prison environment where, despite free education provision and a range of curriculum options (Parker et al., 2000), inmates, many of whom have rejected learning at the earliest opportunity, still do not avail themselves of the educational opportunities on offer (Levy, 2004). This article presents some key findings from a unique ethnographical study conducted with male prisoners in a maximum security prison in Northern Ireland, indicating that a culture of informal learning exists on the wings, separate and distinct from the formal educational programmes offered by the authorities. The article discusses ways of channelling and enhancing these informal learning practices in ways which might increase future participation in formal educational provision.",
author = "Tracy Irwin",
note = "Reference text: Adult Learning Inspectorate (ALI) (2002) Inspection Report: HMP Maghaberry, London: Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons. Alheit, P. and Dausien, B. (2002) ‘The “Double Face” of Lifelong Learning: Two Analytical Perspectives on a “Silent Revolution”’, Studies in the Education of Adults 34, 1: 3-22. Amelin, K. and O’Loan, C. (2005) Northern Ireland Prison Population Projections 2005-2009, Research and Statistical Bulletin 12/2005, Northern Ireland: Statistics and Research Branch. Appleby, Y. and Bathmaker, A. M. (2006) ‘The new skills agenda: increased lifelong learning or new sites of inequality?’, British Educational Research Journal 32, 5: 703-717. Arnot, C. (2007) ‘Out of the Comfort Zone’, The Guardian, News section: Higher Education. October 16 2007 Also at http://education.guardian.co.uk/egweekly/story/0,,2191536,00.html (accessed 11 May 2008). Baird, I. (1999) ‘The Examined life: Women’s Liberatory Learning within a locked-in society’, International Journal of Lifelong Education 18, 2: 103-109. Bayliss, P. (2003) ‘Learning Behind Bars: Time to Liberate Prison Education’, Studies in the Education of Adults 35, 2: 157-172. Braggins, J. (2004) ‘Inside Track: All-Party Parliamentary Group Report on Prisoner Education’, at http://www.aoc.co.uk/aoc/Members/admin/files2/APPG{\%}20report{\%}20final{\%}20formatted.doc (accessed: 10 February 2007). Braggins, J. and Talbot, J. (2006) ‘Wings of Learning: the Role of the Prison Officer in Supporting Prisoner Education’, The Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/ccjs/wings-of-learning.pdf (accessed 25 January 2007). Brewer, J., Lockhart, B. and Rodgers, P. (1999) ‘Crime in Ireland 1945–95’ in A. Heath, R. Breen and C. Whelan (eds) Ireland North And South, Proceedings of The British Academy, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burke, P. J. (2006) ‘Men accessing Education: Gendered Aspirations’, British Educational Research Journal 32, 5: 719-733. Chase, S. (1995) ‘Taking Narrative Seriously – Consequences for Method and Theory in Interview Studies’ in R. Josselson and A. Lieblich (eds) Interpreting Experience: The Narrative Study of Lives, California: Sage Publications. Codd, H. (2007) ‘Prisoners’ Families and Resettlement: A Critical Analysis’, The Howard Journal 46, 3: 255-263. Coffield, F. (1999) ‘Breaking the Consensus: Lifelong Learning as Social Control’, British Educational Research Journal 25, 4: 479-499. Coffield, F. (2000) ‘The Structure Below the Surface: Reassessing the Significance of Informal Learning’ in F. Coffield (ed.) The Necessity of Informal Learning, Bristol: The Policy Press. Crewe, B. (2006) ‘Prison Drug Dealing and the Ethnographic Lens’, The Howard Journal 45, 4: 347-368. Crothers, J. (1998) Reintegration – The Problems and the Issues, Ex-Prisoners’ Interpretative Centre Research Document No. 2, Belfast: EPIC Print. Davis, A. (2003) Are Prisons Obsolete? Ontario: Open Media Press. Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2005) ‘The Offender’s Learning Journey: Learning and Skills Provision for Adult Offenders in England’, at www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/adult_OLJ_V0.5a.doc (accessed 22 February 2007). Dohmen, G. (1998) ‘Another Approach to get more Adults into Continuous Learning’ in P. Alheit and E. Kammler (eds) Lifelong Learning and its Impact on Social and Regional Development, Bremen: Verlag. Eraut, M. (2004) ‘Informal Learning in the Workplace’, Studies in Continuing Education 26, 2: 247-273. Fevre, R., Rees, G. and Gorard, S. (1999) ‘Some Sociological Alternatives to Human Capital Theory and their Implications for Research on Post-Compulsory Education and Training’, Journal of Education and Work 12, 2: 117-140. Fevre, R., Gorard, S. and Rees, G. (2000) ‘Necessary and Unnecessary Learning: The Acquisition of Knowledge and ‘Skills’ in and outside Employment in South Wales in the 20th Century’ in F. Coffield (ed.) The Necessity of Informal Learning, Bristol: The Policy Press. Field, J. (1995a) Is There less Adult Learning in Scotland and Northern Ireland? A Preliminary Analysis, Scottish Journal of Adult and Continuing Education 2, 2: 71-79. Field, J. (1995b) ‘Adult Education in a Divided Society: A Perspective from Northern Ireland’, International Yearbook of Adult Education 23: 188-197. Field, J. (1997) ‘Equity and Access: Adult Participation in Higher Education in Northern Ireland’, Journal of Access Studies 12: 139-152. Field, J. (1998) ‘Understanding Participation in Lifelong Learning in Northern Ireland: Schooling, Networks and the Labour Market’, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/beia.htm (accessed 22 July 1999). Field, J. (2000) Lifelong Learning and the New Educational Order, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Field, J. and Schuller, T. (2000) ‘Networks, Norms and Trust: Explaining Patterns of Lifelong Learning in Scotland and Northern Ireland’ in F. Coffield (ed.) Differing Visions of a Learning Society, Research Findings Volume 2, Bristol: The Policy Press. Forster, W. (1998) ‘The Prison Service and Education in England and Wales’ in W. Forster (ed.) Education Behind Bars: International Comparisons, Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education (NIACE). Germanotta, D. (1995) ‘Prison Education: A Contextual Analysis’ in H. Davidson (ed.) Schooling in a Total Institution: Critical Perspectives on Prison Education, Westport: Bergin and Garvey Publishers. Gillborn, D. and Kirton, A. (2000) ‘White Heat: Racism, under-achievement and white working-class boys’, International Journal of Inclusive Education 4, 4: 271-288. Gorard, S., Renold, E., Rees, G., Fevre, R. and Furlong, J. (1996) The Social Determinants of Adult Participation in Education and Training: A Framework for Analysis, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000113.doc (accessed 31 October 2004). Gorard, S., Rees, G. and Fevre, R. (1997) Learning Trajectories: Predicting Patterns of Adult Education and Training, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000237.doc (accessed 22 August 2003). Gorard, S., Fevre, R. and Rees, G. (1999) ‘The Apparent Decline of Informal Learning’, Oxford Review of Education 25, 4: 437-454. Greg, P. (2007) The Crum: Inside the Crumlin Road Prison, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan Ltd. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons (HMIP) (2005) ‘Women in Prison’, at http://inspectorates.homeoffice.gov.uk/hmiprisons/thematic-reports1/womeninprison.pdf?view=Binary (accessed 15 April 2007). Hodges, L. (2007) ‘Universities: The Learning mould is smashed’, The Independent Education Section 11 January 2007. Also at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/higher/universities-the-learning-mould-is-smashed-431560.html (accessed 11 May 2008). Home Office (2005) ‘Reducing Re-offending Through Skills and Employment’, at http://www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/green_paper_reducing_re-offending_through_skills_{\%}20and_employment_final_version.pdf (accessed 25 February 2007). Hua, H. (2005) ‘The Patterns of Masculinity in Prison Sociology: A Case Study in one Taiwanese Prison’, Critical Criminology 13, 1: 1-16. Independent on Sunday (2007) ‘Leading article: Learning to move with the times’, Independent on Sunday Education Section. 11 January 2007 Also at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/higher/leading-article-learning-to-move-with-the-times-431550.html (accessed 11 May 2008). Irwin, T. (2003) ‘Prison Education in Northern Ireland: Learning from our Paramilitary Past’, The Howard Journal 42, 5: 471-484. Jewkes, Y. (2002) ‘The Use of Media in Constructing Identities in the Masculine Environment of Men’s Prisons’, European Journal of Communication 17, 2: 205-225. Kenway, P., MacInnes, T., Kelly, A. and Palmer, G. (2006) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion in Northern Ireland 2006, London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Levy, M. (2004) No Bars on Learning, Training Journal: 9: 18-21 Liebling, A. (1999) ‘Doing Research in Prison: Breaking the Silence?’, Theoretical Criminology 3, 2: 147-173. McEvoy, K. (2000) ‘Law, Struggle and Political Transformation in Northern Ireland’, Journal of Law and Society 27, 4: 542-571. McEvoy, K., O’Mahony, D., Horner, C. and Lyner, O. (1999) ‘The Home Front - The Families of Politically Motivated Prisoners in Northern Ireland’, British Journal of Criminology 39, 2: 175–197. McGivney, V. (1996) ‘Adult Participation in Learning: Can We Change the Pattern?’, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents.000000430.htm (accessed 22 July 1999). McKeown, L. (1999) Out of Time: Irish Republican Prisoners Long Kesh 1972-2000, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications. McVicar, D. (2000) Marginalised Young People and Social Inclusion Policy in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Northern Ireland Economic Research Centre. Mahan, S. (1984) ‘Imposition of Despair: An Ethnography of Women in Prison’, Justice Quarterly 1, 3: 357-383. Mandela, N. (1995) Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, London: Abacus Publishing. Mellar, H., Kambouri, M., Sanderson, M. and Pavlov, V. (2004) ICT and Adult Literacy, Numeracy and ESOL, London: National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Institute of Education. Miles, M. and Huberman, A. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, California: Sage Publications. Miller, R. (2000) Researching Life Stories and Family Histories, London: Sage Publications. Morgan, S. (1999) ‘Prison Lives: Critical Issues in Reading Prisoner Autobiography’, The Howard Journal 38: 328-340. Northern Ireland Affairs Committee, House of Commons (2004) The Separation of Paramilitary Prisoners at HMP Maghaberry, Northern Ireland: HMSO. Northern Ireland Affairs Committee, House of Commons (2007) The Northern Ireland Prison Service, First Report of Session 2007-08, Volume 1, London: The Stationery Office Ltd. O’Donnell, I. and Edgar, K. (1998) ‘Routine Victimisation in Prisons’, The Howard Journal 37, 3: 266-279. O’Dowd, L. (1989) ‘Ignoring the Communal Divide: The Implications for Social Research’ in R. Jenkins (ed.) Northern Ireland: Studies in Social and Economic Life, Avebury, Aldershot. O’Loan, C. and Amelin, K. (2006) The Northern Ireland Prison Population in 2005, Research and Statistical Bulletin 2/2006, Northern Ireland: Statistics and Research Branch. Palmer, G., MacInnes, T. and Kenway, P. (2007) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion 2006, London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Parker, C., Hazel, P. and Watson, J. (2000) ‘Prison Education Beyond 2000: A Review of Educational Provision for Prisoners in Northern Ireland’, at http://www.niprisonservice.gov.uk/module.cfm/opt/5/area/Publications/page/publications/archive/true/download (accessed 24 March 2007). Parker, A. (2006) ‘Lifelong Learning to labour: apprenticeship, masculinity and communities of practice’, British Educational Research Journal 32, 5: 687-701. Pawson, R. (2000) ‘The Evaluator’s Tale’ in D. Wilson and A. Reuss (eds) Prison(er) Education: Stories of Change and Transformation, Winchester: Waterside Press. Pidgeon, J. (2007) ‘The Reinvention Centre at Westwood – A Social Teaching Space’, at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/insite/newsandevents/intnews2/ne1000000212139/ (accessed 11 May 2008). Pollock, J. (1997) Prisons Today and Tomorrow, Maryland: Aspen Publishers. 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(2005) ‘The State of the Prisons: Exploring Public Knowledge and Opinion’, The Howard Journal 44, 3: 286-306. Rocks, P. (1985) ‘Attitudes to Participation in Education of Adult Prisoners in HMP Maze (Compounds) and HMP Belfast’, International Journal of Lifelong Education 4, 1: 69–82. Sargant, N., Field, J., Hywel, F., Schuller, T. and Tuckett, A. (1997) The Learning Divide: A Report on the Findings of a UK Wide Survey on Adult Participation in Education and Learning, Leicester: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE). Scraton, P. and Moore, L. (2006) ‘Degradation, Harm and Survival in a Women’s Prison’, Social Policy and Society 5: 67-78. Smyth, M. (1998) Half the Battle: Understanding the Impact of ‘The Troubles’ on Children and Young People – Deaths of Children and Young People in The Troubles, at www.cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/violence/cts/ smyth1.htm (accessed 27 July 2003). Smyth, M. and Goldie, R. (2001) Two Reports on Children, Young People and the Troubles in Northern Ireland: Young People’s Lives in Local Communities, A Report on International Delegates’ Site Visits in Northern Ireland, Londonderry: INCORE. Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) (2002) Reducing Re-Offending by Ex-Prisoners, London:Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Spradley, J. (1979) The Ethnographic Interview, Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. Stewart, E. (2007) ‘The Sexual Health and Behaviour of Male Prisoners: The Need for Research’, The Howard Journal 46, 1: 43-59. Strain, M. (2000) Editorial, Educational Management and Administration 28, 3: 243-247. Thomas, J. (1995) ‘The Ironies of Prison Education’ in H. Davidson (ed.) Schooling in a Total Institution: Critical Perspectives on Prison Education, Westport United States: Bergin and Garvey Publishers. Tight, M. (1998) ‘Bridging the “Learning Divide”: The Nature and Politics of Participation’, Studies in the Education of Adults 30, 2: 110-119. Torre, M. E. and Fine, M. (2005) ‘Bar None: Extending Affirmative Action to Higher Education in Prison’, Journal of Social Issues 61, 3: 569-586. Vandebosch, H. (2000) ‘Research Note: A Captive Audience? The Media Use of Prisoners’, European Journal of Communication 15, 4: 529-544. Warner, K. (1998) ‘The “Prisoners are People” Perspective - and the Problems of Promoting Learning where this Outlook is Rejected’, Journal Of Correctional Education 49, 3: 118-132. Wengraf, T. (2001) Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic, Narrative and Semi-Structured Methods, London: Sage Publications. Whitmore, E. (1994) ‘To Tell the Truth: Working with Oppressed Groups in Participatory Approaches to Inquiry’ in P. Reason (ed.) Participation in Human Inquiry, London: Sage Publications. Wilson, A. (2002) ‘Reading a Library, Writing a Book: Prisoners’ Day to Day Engagement with Literacy/ies’, at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00002546.htm (accessed 22 August 2003). Williams, B. (1991) Work with Prisoners, Birmingham: Venture Press.",
year = "2008",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "18--29",
journal = "Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning",
issn = "1466-6529",
number = "2",

}

Cell Stories: Informal learning in a custodial establishment. / Irwin, Tracy.

In: Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2008, p. 18-29.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cell Stories: Informal learning in a custodial establishment

AU - Irwin, Tracy

N1 - Reference text: Adult Learning Inspectorate (ALI) (2002) Inspection Report: HMP Maghaberry, London: Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons. Alheit, P. and Dausien, B. (2002) ‘The “Double Face” of Lifelong Learning: Two Analytical Perspectives on a “Silent Revolution”’, Studies in the Education of Adults 34, 1: 3-22. Amelin, K. and O’Loan, C. (2005) Northern Ireland Prison Population Projections 2005-2009, Research and Statistical Bulletin 12/2005, Northern Ireland: Statistics and Research Branch. Appleby, Y. and Bathmaker, A. M. (2006) ‘The new skills agenda: increased lifelong learning or new sites of inequality?’, British Educational Research Journal 32, 5: 703-717. Arnot, C. (2007) ‘Out of the Comfort Zone’, The Guardian, News section: Higher Education. October 16 2007 Also at http://education.guardian.co.uk/egweekly/story/0,,2191536,00.html (accessed 11 May 2008). Baird, I. (1999) ‘The Examined life: Women’s Liberatory Learning within a locked-in society’, International Journal of Lifelong Education 18, 2: 103-109. Bayliss, P. (2003) ‘Learning Behind Bars: Time to Liberate Prison Education’, Studies in the Education of Adults 35, 2: 157-172. Braggins, J. (2004) ‘Inside Track: All-Party Parliamentary Group Report on Prisoner Education’, at http://www.aoc.co.uk/aoc/Members/admin/files2/APPG%20report%20final%20formatted.doc (accessed: 10 February 2007). Braggins, J. and Talbot, J. (2006) ‘Wings of Learning: the Role of the Prison Officer in Supporting Prisoner Education’, The Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/ccjs/wings-of-learning.pdf (accessed 25 January 2007). Brewer, J., Lockhart, B. and Rodgers, P. (1999) ‘Crime in Ireland 1945–95’ in A. Heath, R. Breen and C. Whelan (eds) Ireland North And South, Proceedings of The British Academy, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burke, P. J. (2006) ‘Men accessing Education: Gendered Aspirations’, British Educational Research Journal 32, 5: 719-733. Chase, S. (1995) ‘Taking Narrative Seriously – Consequences for Method and Theory in Interview Studies’ in R. Josselson and A. Lieblich (eds) Interpreting Experience: The Narrative Study of Lives, California: Sage Publications. Codd, H. (2007) ‘Prisoners’ Families and Resettlement: A Critical Analysis’, The Howard Journal 46, 3: 255-263. Coffield, F. (1999) ‘Breaking the Consensus: Lifelong Learning as Social Control’, British Educational Research Journal 25, 4: 479-499. Coffield, F. (2000) ‘The Structure Below the Surface: Reassessing the Significance of Informal Learning’ in F. Coffield (ed.) The Necessity of Informal Learning, Bristol: The Policy Press. Crewe, B. (2006) ‘Prison Drug Dealing and the Ethnographic Lens’, The Howard Journal 45, 4: 347-368. Crothers, J. (1998) Reintegration – The Problems and the Issues, Ex-Prisoners’ Interpretative Centre Research Document No. 2, Belfast: EPIC Print. Davis, A. (2003) Are Prisons Obsolete? Ontario: Open Media Press. Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2005) ‘The Offender’s Learning Journey: Learning and Skills Provision for Adult Offenders in England’, at www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/adult_OLJ_V0.5a.doc (accessed 22 February 2007). Dohmen, G. (1998) ‘Another Approach to get more Adults into Continuous Learning’ in P. Alheit and E. Kammler (eds) Lifelong Learning and its Impact on Social and Regional Development, Bremen: Verlag. Eraut, M. (2004) ‘Informal Learning in the Workplace’, Studies in Continuing Education 26, 2: 247-273. Fevre, R., Rees, G. and Gorard, S. (1999) ‘Some Sociological Alternatives to Human Capital Theory and their Implications for Research on Post-Compulsory Education and Training’, Journal of Education and Work 12, 2: 117-140. Fevre, R., Gorard, S. and Rees, G. (2000) ‘Necessary and Unnecessary Learning: The Acquisition of Knowledge and ‘Skills’ in and outside Employment in South Wales in the 20th Century’ in F. Coffield (ed.) The Necessity of Informal Learning, Bristol: The Policy Press. Field, J. (1995a) Is There less Adult Learning in Scotland and Northern Ireland? A Preliminary Analysis, Scottish Journal of Adult and Continuing Education 2, 2: 71-79. Field, J. (1995b) ‘Adult Education in a Divided Society: A Perspective from Northern Ireland’, International Yearbook of Adult Education 23: 188-197. Field, J. (1997) ‘Equity and Access: Adult Participation in Higher Education in Northern Ireland’, Journal of Access Studies 12: 139-152. Field, J. (1998) ‘Understanding Participation in Lifelong Learning in Northern Ireland: Schooling, Networks and the Labour Market’, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/beia.htm (accessed 22 July 1999). Field, J. (2000) Lifelong Learning and the New Educational Order, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Field, J. and Schuller, T. (2000) ‘Networks, Norms and Trust: Explaining Patterns of Lifelong Learning in Scotland and Northern Ireland’ in F. Coffield (ed.) Differing Visions of a Learning Society, Research Findings Volume 2, Bristol: The Policy Press. Forster, W. (1998) ‘The Prison Service and Education in England and Wales’ in W. Forster (ed.) Education Behind Bars: International Comparisons, Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education (NIACE). Germanotta, D. (1995) ‘Prison Education: A Contextual Analysis’ in H. Davidson (ed.) Schooling in a Total Institution: Critical Perspectives on Prison Education, Westport: Bergin and Garvey Publishers. Gillborn, D. and Kirton, A. (2000) ‘White Heat: Racism, under-achievement and white working-class boys’, International Journal of Inclusive Education 4, 4: 271-288. Gorard, S., Renold, E., Rees, G., Fevre, R. and Furlong, J. (1996) The Social Determinants of Adult Participation in Education and Training: A Framework for Analysis, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000113.doc (accessed 31 October 2004). Gorard, S., Rees, G. and Fevre, R. (1997) Learning Trajectories: Predicting Patterns of Adult Education and Training, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000237.doc (accessed 22 August 2003). Gorard, S., Fevre, R. and Rees, G. (1999) ‘The Apparent Decline of Informal Learning’, Oxford Review of Education 25, 4: 437-454. Greg, P. (2007) The Crum: Inside the Crumlin Road Prison, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan Ltd. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons (HMIP) (2005) ‘Women in Prison’, at http://inspectorates.homeoffice.gov.uk/hmiprisons/thematic-reports1/womeninprison.pdf?view=Binary (accessed 15 April 2007). Hodges, L. (2007) ‘Universities: The Learning mould is smashed’, The Independent Education Section 11 January 2007. Also at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/higher/universities-the-learning-mould-is-smashed-431560.html (accessed 11 May 2008). Home Office (2005) ‘Reducing Re-offending Through Skills and Employment’, at http://www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/green_paper_reducing_re-offending_through_skills_%20and_employment_final_version.pdf (accessed 25 February 2007). Hua, H. (2005) ‘The Patterns of Masculinity in Prison Sociology: A Case Study in one Taiwanese Prison’, Critical Criminology 13, 1: 1-16. Independent on Sunday (2007) ‘Leading article: Learning to move with the times’, Independent on Sunday Education Section. 11 January 2007 Also at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/higher/leading-article-learning-to-move-with-the-times-431550.html (accessed 11 May 2008). Irwin, T. (2003) ‘Prison Education in Northern Ireland: Learning from our Paramilitary Past’, The Howard Journal 42, 5: 471-484. Jewkes, Y. (2002) ‘The Use of Media in Constructing Identities in the Masculine Environment of Men’s Prisons’, European Journal of Communication 17, 2: 205-225. Kenway, P., MacInnes, T., Kelly, A. and Palmer, G. (2006) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion in Northern Ireland 2006, London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Levy, M. (2004) No Bars on Learning, Training Journal: 9: 18-21 Liebling, A. (1999) ‘Doing Research in Prison: Breaking the Silence?’, Theoretical Criminology 3, 2: 147-173. McEvoy, K. (2000) ‘Law, Struggle and Political Transformation in Northern Ireland’, Journal of Law and Society 27, 4: 542-571. McEvoy, K., O’Mahony, D., Horner, C. and Lyner, O. (1999) ‘The Home Front - The Families of Politically Motivated Prisoners in Northern Ireland’, British Journal of Criminology 39, 2: 175–197. McGivney, V. (1996) ‘Adult Participation in Learning: Can We Change the Pattern?’, at www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents.000000430.htm (accessed 22 July 1999). McKeown, L. (1999) Out of Time: Irish Republican Prisoners Long Kesh 1972-2000, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications. McVicar, D. (2000) Marginalised Young People and Social Inclusion Policy in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Northern Ireland Economic Research Centre. Mahan, S. (1984) ‘Imposition of Despair: An Ethnography of Women in Prison’, Justice Quarterly 1, 3: 357-383. Mandela, N. (1995) Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, London: Abacus Publishing. Mellar, H., Kambouri, M., Sanderson, M. and Pavlov, V. (2004) ICT and Adult Literacy, Numeracy and ESOL, London: National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Institute of Education. Miles, M. and Huberman, A. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, California: Sage Publications. Miller, R. (2000) Researching Life Stories and Family Histories, London: Sage Publications. Morgan, S. (1999) ‘Prison Lives: Critical Issues in Reading Prisoner Autobiography’, The Howard Journal 38: 328-340. Northern Ireland Affairs Committee, House of Commons (2004) The Separation of Paramilitary Prisoners at HMP Maghaberry, Northern Ireland: HMSO. Northern Ireland Affairs Committee, House of Commons (2007) The Northern Ireland Prison Service, First Report of Session 2007-08, Volume 1, London: The Stationery Office Ltd. O’Donnell, I. and Edgar, K. (1998) ‘Routine Victimisation in Prisons’, The Howard Journal 37, 3: 266-279. O’Dowd, L. (1989) ‘Ignoring the Communal Divide: The Implications for Social Research’ in R. Jenkins (ed.) Northern Ireland: Studies in Social and Economic Life, Avebury, Aldershot. O’Loan, C. and Amelin, K. (2006) The Northern Ireland Prison Population in 2005, Research and Statistical Bulletin 2/2006, Northern Ireland: Statistics and Research Branch. Palmer, G., MacInnes, T. and Kenway, P. (2007) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion 2006, London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Parker, C., Hazel, P. and Watson, J. (2000) ‘Prison Education Beyond 2000: A Review of Educational Provision for Prisoners in Northern Ireland’, at http://www.niprisonservice.gov.uk/module.cfm/opt/5/area/Publications/page/publications/archive/true/download (accessed 24 March 2007). Parker, A. (2006) ‘Lifelong Learning to labour: apprenticeship, masculinity and communities of practice’, British Educational Research Journal 32, 5: 687-701. Pawson, R. (2000) ‘The Evaluator’s Tale’ in D. Wilson and A. Reuss (eds) Prison(er) Education: Stories of Change and Transformation, Winchester: Waterside Press. Pidgeon, J. (2007) ‘The Reinvention Centre at Westwood – A Social Teaching Space’, at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/insite/newsandevents/intnews2/ne1000000212139/ (accessed 11 May 2008). Pollock, J. (1997) Prisons Today and Tomorrow, Maryland: Aspen Publishers. 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PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Concern has been growing in recent years about the continued non-participation of males in the educational process (Gillborn and Kirton, 2000; Burke, 2006; Quinn et al., 2006). This pattern is replicated within the prison environment where, despite free education provision and a range of curriculum options (Parker et al., 2000), inmates, many of whom have rejected learning at the earliest opportunity, still do not avail themselves of the educational opportunities on offer (Levy, 2004). This article presents some key findings from a unique ethnographical study conducted with male prisoners in a maximum security prison in Northern Ireland, indicating that a culture of informal learning exists on the wings, separate and distinct from the formal educational programmes offered by the authorities. The article discusses ways of channelling and enhancing these informal learning practices in ways which might increase future participation in formal educational provision.

AB - Concern has been growing in recent years about the continued non-participation of males in the educational process (Gillborn and Kirton, 2000; Burke, 2006; Quinn et al., 2006). This pattern is replicated within the prison environment where, despite free education provision and a range of curriculum options (Parker et al., 2000), inmates, many of whom have rejected learning at the earliest opportunity, still do not avail themselves of the educational opportunities on offer (Levy, 2004). This article presents some key findings from a unique ethnographical study conducted with male prisoners in a maximum security prison in Northern Ireland, indicating that a culture of informal learning exists on the wings, separate and distinct from the formal educational programmes offered by the authorities. The article discusses ways of channelling and enhancing these informal learning practices in ways which might increase future participation in formal educational provision.

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 18

EP - 29

JO - Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning

T2 - Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning

JF - Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning

SN - 1466-6529

IS - 2

ER -