Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Production Downstream of a Compartment for Underventilated Fires

Sebastian Ukleja, Michael Delichatsios, Mary Delichatsios, YeePing Lee

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke yields measured downstream of a small scale compartment (volume 0.125m3 – 0.375m3) were studied for underventilated fires of propane. The flow rate of propane was increased gradually and species were collected under a hood. The heat release rate (HRR) of the combustion products was also measured (by oxygen depletion) and was found to initially increase as the flow rate of propane was increased (overventilated burning inside the compartment). Before external burning started, an intermediate plateau in the measured HRR was observed, corresponding to the Heat Release Rate =1500AH1/2 , where A and H are area and height of the opening respectively. The same behaviour was observed for all openings and remarkably all compartment geometries employed in this work. Further experiments indicated that the occurrence and extent of that plateau depends on the temperature inside the compartment and thus the growth rate of fire. Species production during this plateau period was investigated, as combustion was underventilated during this phase. It was observed that carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke yields increased during this period. The CO yield increased by a factor of 5, whereas the smoke yield by a factor of 3. Moreover, comparison and differences are discussed between the values of the ratio of carbon monoxide to smoke yield from our study and from the literature. The present results for the increased amounts of carbon monoxide and smoke are applicable if, during the fire growth, underventilated conditions develop without external burning. Current engineering calculations for smoke and carbon monoxide ca not predict the high concentrations of carbon monoxide and smoke measured in such a scenario. Whether these conditions can be developed will depend on whether the gas temperatures at the opening of the enclosure are able to ignite the unburned gases issuing from the enclosure. This in turn, depends on the fire growth rate, i.e. for a fast increase in the fuel supply rate the gas temperatures in the enclosure are lower than for a slower increase in the fuel supply rate due to (transient) heat losses to the walls of the enclosure and as result outside burning starts much later.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
    EditorsBjörn Karlsson
    Pages849-861
    Number of pages1389
    Publication statusPublished - 2008
    Event9th International IAFSS Symposium - Karlsruhe, Germany
    Duration: 1 Jan 2008 → …

    Conference

    Conference9th International IAFSS Symposium
    Period1/01/08 → …

    Fingerprint

    Smoke
    Carbon monoxide
    Fires
    Enclosures
    Propane
    Gases
    Flow rate
    Heat losses
    Temperature
    Carbon dioxide
    Oxygen
    Geometry
    Hot Temperature
    Experiments

    Keywords

    • compartment fires
    • smoke
    • toxicity
    • carbon monoxide
    • smoke yield
    • underventilated combustion.

    Cite this

    Ukleja, S., Delichatsios, M., Delichatsios, M., & Lee, Y. (2008). Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Production Downstream of a Compartment for Underventilated Fires. In B. Karlsson (Ed.), Unknown Host Publication (pp. 849-861)
    Ukleja, Sebastian ; Delichatsios, Michael ; Delichatsios, Mary ; Lee, YeePing. / Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Production Downstream of a Compartment for Underventilated Fires. Unknown Host Publication. editor / Björn Karlsson. 2008. pp. 849-861
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    abstract = "The carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke yields measured downstream of a small scale compartment (volume 0.125m3 – 0.375m3) were studied for underventilated fires of propane. The flow rate of propane was increased gradually and species were collected under a hood. The heat release rate (HRR) of the combustion products was also measured (by oxygen depletion) and was found to initially increase as the flow rate of propane was increased (overventilated burning inside the compartment). Before external burning started, an intermediate plateau in the measured HRR was observed, corresponding to the Heat Release Rate =1500AH1/2 , where A and H are area and height of the opening respectively. The same behaviour was observed for all openings and remarkably all compartment geometries employed in this work. Further experiments indicated that the occurrence and extent of that plateau depends on the temperature inside the compartment and thus the growth rate of fire. Species production during this plateau period was investigated, as combustion was underventilated during this phase. It was observed that carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke yields increased during this period. The CO yield increased by a factor of 5, whereas the smoke yield by a factor of 3. Moreover, comparison and differences are discussed between the values of the ratio of carbon monoxide to smoke yield from our study and from the literature. The present results for the increased amounts of carbon monoxide and smoke are applicable if, during the fire growth, underventilated conditions develop without external burning. Current engineering calculations for smoke and carbon monoxide ca not predict the high concentrations of carbon monoxide and smoke measured in such a scenario. Whether these conditions can be developed will depend on whether the gas temperatures at the opening of the enclosure are able to ignite the unburned gases issuing from the enclosure. This in turn, depends on the fire growth rate, i.e. for a fast increase in the fuel supply rate the gas temperatures in the enclosure are lower than for a slower increase in the fuel supply rate due to (transient) heat losses to the walls of the enclosure and as result outside burning starts much later.",
    keywords = "compartment fires, smoke, toxicity, carbon monoxide, smoke yield, underventilated combustion.",
    author = "Sebastian Ukleja and Michael Delichatsios and Mary Delichatsios and YeePing Lee",
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    Ukleja, S, Delichatsios, M, Delichatsios, M & Lee, Y 2008, Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Production Downstream of a Compartment for Underventilated Fires. in B Karlsson (ed.), Unknown Host Publication. pp. 849-861, 9th International IAFSS Symposium, 1/01/08.

    Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Production Downstream of a Compartment for Underventilated Fires. / Ukleja, Sebastian; Delichatsios, Michael; Delichatsios, Mary; Lee, YeePing.

    Unknown Host Publication. ed. / Björn Karlsson. 2008. p. 849-861.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Production Downstream of a Compartment for Underventilated Fires

    AU - Ukleja, Sebastian

    AU - Delichatsios, Michael

    AU - Delichatsios, Mary

    AU - Lee, YeePing

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - The carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke yields measured downstream of a small scale compartment (volume 0.125m3 – 0.375m3) were studied for underventilated fires of propane. The flow rate of propane was increased gradually and species were collected under a hood. The heat release rate (HRR) of the combustion products was also measured (by oxygen depletion) and was found to initially increase as the flow rate of propane was increased (overventilated burning inside the compartment). Before external burning started, an intermediate plateau in the measured HRR was observed, corresponding to the Heat Release Rate =1500AH1/2 , where A and H are area and height of the opening respectively. The same behaviour was observed for all openings and remarkably all compartment geometries employed in this work. Further experiments indicated that the occurrence and extent of that plateau depends on the temperature inside the compartment and thus the growth rate of fire. Species production during this plateau period was investigated, as combustion was underventilated during this phase. It was observed that carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke yields increased during this period. The CO yield increased by a factor of 5, whereas the smoke yield by a factor of 3. Moreover, comparison and differences are discussed between the values of the ratio of carbon monoxide to smoke yield from our study and from the literature. The present results for the increased amounts of carbon monoxide and smoke are applicable if, during the fire growth, underventilated conditions develop without external burning. Current engineering calculations for smoke and carbon monoxide ca not predict the high concentrations of carbon monoxide and smoke measured in such a scenario. Whether these conditions can be developed will depend on whether the gas temperatures at the opening of the enclosure are able to ignite the unburned gases issuing from the enclosure. This in turn, depends on the fire growth rate, i.e. for a fast increase in the fuel supply rate the gas temperatures in the enclosure are lower than for a slower increase in the fuel supply rate due to (transient) heat losses to the walls of the enclosure and as result outside burning starts much later.

    AB - The carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke yields measured downstream of a small scale compartment (volume 0.125m3 – 0.375m3) were studied for underventilated fires of propane. The flow rate of propane was increased gradually and species were collected under a hood. The heat release rate (HRR) of the combustion products was also measured (by oxygen depletion) and was found to initially increase as the flow rate of propane was increased (overventilated burning inside the compartment). Before external burning started, an intermediate plateau in the measured HRR was observed, corresponding to the Heat Release Rate =1500AH1/2 , where A and H are area and height of the opening respectively. The same behaviour was observed for all openings and remarkably all compartment geometries employed in this work. Further experiments indicated that the occurrence and extent of that plateau depends on the temperature inside the compartment and thus the growth rate of fire. Species production during this plateau period was investigated, as combustion was underventilated during this phase. It was observed that carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke yields increased during this period. The CO yield increased by a factor of 5, whereas the smoke yield by a factor of 3. Moreover, comparison and differences are discussed between the values of the ratio of carbon monoxide to smoke yield from our study and from the literature. The present results for the increased amounts of carbon monoxide and smoke are applicable if, during the fire growth, underventilated conditions develop without external burning. Current engineering calculations for smoke and carbon monoxide ca not predict the high concentrations of carbon monoxide and smoke measured in such a scenario. Whether these conditions can be developed will depend on whether the gas temperatures at the opening of the enclosure are able to ignite the unburned gases issuing from the enclosure. This in turn, depends on the fire growth rate, i.e. for a fast increase in the fuel supply rate the gas temperatures in the enclosure are lower than for a slower increase in the fuel supply rate due to (transient) heat losses to the walls of the enclosure and as result outside burning starts much later.

    KW - compartment fires

    KW - smoke

    KW - toxicity

    KW - carbon monoxide

    KW - smoke yield

    KW - underventilated combustion.

    UR - http://iafss.haifire.com/data/iafss/symposium/9/9-FrontMatter.pdf

    UR - http://iafss.haifire.com/data/iafss/symposium/9/9-FrontMatter.pdf

    M3 - Conference contribution

    SP - 849

    EP - 861

    BT - Unknown Host Publication

    A2 - Karlsson, Björn

    ER -

    Ukleja S, Delichatsios M, Delichatsios M, Lee Y. Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Production Downstream of a Compartment for Underventilated Fires. In Karlsson B, editor, Unknown Host Publication. 2008. p. 849-861