Capillary electrophoretic determination of trace metals in hair samples and its comparison with high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques

Stephen McClean, EJ O'Kane, Danny Coulter, S McLean, Franklin Smyth

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Abstract

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AA) for the determination of trace concentrations of selected metals in human hair. CE and HPLC methods are based upon the chelation of the metals with 2-(5'-bromo-2'-pyridylazo)-5-diethylamino phenol (5-Br-PADAP) followed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detection. Large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-CE using injection times of up to 300 s is applied to the simultaneous determination of Co and Zn providing lower limits of detection (LODs) of 4.2 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3) and 6.0 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3), respectively, than can be achieved by conventional CE. The LVSS procedure could not be applied to hair samples due to a higher run current existing when the sample is introduced into the capillary. Conventional CE with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) present in the run buffer to retain the ligand in solution is used for the determination of metal concentrations in hair samples. Only Zn could be determined in this way as it exists at relatively high levels in hair. Co, Ni and Hg could be detected when spiked hair samples were analysed with estimated LODs of 5.0 x 10(-7) mol dm(-3), 1.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 3.0 x 10(-5) mol dm(-3), respectively. HPLC was successfully used to determine Co and Cu in hair samples, with levels of 57.6 ppb and 17.31 ppm being found, respectively, and corresponded closely to results produced by AA. Fe also gave a signal together with unidentified coeluting species. In a separate HPLC study the determination of Ni and Hg as their complexes with hydrogen peroxide and 5-Br-PADAP was also investigated and LODs of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 5.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3), respectively, were achieved. AA was used as a reference method to determine levels of Co, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in hair and the results produced were in order of magnitude agreement with accepted literature values.
LanguageEnglish
Pages11-18
JournalElectrophoresis
Volume19
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1998

Fingerprint

Capillary electrophoresis
Atomic absorption spectrometry
High performance liquid chromatography
Metals
Phenol
Chelation
Hydrogen Peroxide
Buffers
Trace metals
Ligands

Keywords

  • Azo Compounds/chemistry
  • Chelating Agents/chemistry
  • Chromatography
  • High Pressure Liquid/methods
  • Electrophoresis
  • Capillary/methods
  • Hair/chemistry
  • Humans
  • Metals/analysis
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Atomic/methods
  • Ultraviolet

Cite this

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title = "Capillary electrophoretic determination of trace metals in hair samples and its comparison with high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques",
abstract = "Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AA) for the determination of trace concentrations of selected metals in human hair. CE and HPLC methods are based upon the chelation of the metals with 2-(5'-bromo-2'-pyridylazo)-5-diethylamino phenol (5-Br-PADAP) followed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detection. Large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-CE using injection times of up to 300 s is applied to the simultaneous determination of Co and Zn providing lower limits of detection (LODs) of 4.2 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3) and 6.0 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3), respectively, than can be achieved by conventional CE. The LVSS procedure could not be applied to hair samples due to a higher run current existing when the sample is introduced into the capillary. Conventional CE with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) present in the run buffer to retain the ligand in solution is used for the determination of metal concentrations in hair samples. Only Zn could be determined in this way as it exists at relatively high levels in hair. Co, Ni and Hg could be detected when spiked hair samples were analysed with estimated LODs of 5.0 x 10(-7) mol dm(-3), 1.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 3.0 x 10(-5) mol dm(-3), respectively. HPLC was successfully used to determine Co and Cu in hair samples, with levels of 57.6 ppb and 17.31 ppm being found, respectively, and corresponded closely to results produced by AA. Fe also gave a signal together with unidentified coeluting species. In a separate HPLC study the determination of Ni and Hg as their complexes with hydrogen peroxide and 5-Br-PADAP was also investigated and LODs of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 5.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3), respectively, were achieved. AA was used as a reference method to determine levels of Co, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in hair and the results produced were in order of magnitude agreement with accepted literature values.",
keywords = "Azo Compounds/chemistry, Chelating Agents/chemistry, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods, Electrophoresis, Capillary/methods, Hair/chemistry, Humans, Metals/analysis, Spectrophotometry, Atomic/methods, Ultraviolet",
author = "Stephen McClean and EJ O'Kane and Danny Coulter and S McLean and Franklin Smyth",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Capillary electrophoretic determination of trace metals in hair samples and its comparison with high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques

AU - McClean, Stephen

AU - O'Kane, EJ

AU - Coulter, Danny

AU - McLean, S

AU - Smyth, Franklin

N1 - LR: 20061115; PUBM: Print; JID: 8204476; 0 (Azo Compounds); 0 (Chelating Agents); 0 (Metals); 14337-53-2 (2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol); ppublish

PY - 1998/1

Y1 - 1998/1

N2 - Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AA) for the determination of trace concentrations of selected metals in human hair. CE and HPLC methods are based upon the chelation of the metals with 2-(5'-bromo-2'-pyridylazo)-5-diethylamino phenol (5-Br-PADAP) followed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detection. Large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-CE using injection times of up to 300 s is applied to the simultaneous determination of Co and Zn providing lower limits of detection (LODs) of 4.2 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3) and 6.0 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3), respectively, than can be achieved by conventional CE. The LVSS procedure could not be applied to hair samples due to a higher run current existing when the sample is introduced into the capillary. Conventional CE with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) present in the run buffer to retain the ligand in solution is used for the determination of metal concentrations in hair samples. Only Zn could be determined in this way as it exists at relatively high levels in hair. Co, Ni and Hg could be detected when spiked hair samples were analysed with estimated LODs of 5.0 x 10(-7) mol dm(-3), 1.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 3.0 x 10(-5) mol dm(-3), respectively. HPLC was successfully used to determine Co and Cu in hair samples, with levels of 57.6 ppb and 17.31 ppm being found, respectively, and corresponded closely to results produced by AA. Fe also gave a signal together with unidentified coeluting species. In a separate HPLC study the determination of Ni and Hg as their complexes with hydrogen peroxide and 5-Br-PADAP was also investigated and LODs of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 5.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3), respectively, were achieved. AA was used as a reference method to determine levels of Co, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in hair and the results produced were in order of magnitude agreement with accepted literature values.

AB - Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AA) for the determination of trace concentrations of selected metals in human hair. CE and HPLC methods are based upon the chelation of the metals with 2-(5'-bromo-2'-pyridylazo)-5-diethylamino phenol (5-Br-PADAP) followed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detection. Large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-CE using injection times of up to 300 s is applied to the simultaneous determination of Co and Zn providing lower limits of detection (LODs) of 4.2 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3) and 6.0 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3), respectively, than can be achieved by conventional CE. The LVSS procedure could not be applied to hair samples due to a higher run current existing when the sample is introduced into the capillary. Conventional CE with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) present in the run buffer to retain the ligand in solution is used for the determination of metal concentrations in hair samples. Only Zn could be determined in this way as it exists at relatively high levels in hair. Co, Ni and Hg could be detected when spiked hair samples were analysed with estimated LODs of 5.0 x 10(-7) mol dm(-3), 1.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 3.0 x 10(-5) mol dm(-3), respectively. HPLC was successfully used to determine Co and Cu in hair samples, with levels of 57.6 ppb and 17.31 ppm being found, respectively, and corresponded closely to results produced by AA. Fe also gave a signal together with unidentified coeluting species. In a separate HPLC study the determination of Ni and Hg as their complexes with hydrogen peroxide and 5-Br-PADAP was also investigated and LODs of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3) and 5.0 x 10(-6) mol dm(-3), respectively, were achieved. AA was used as a reference method to determine levels of Co, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in hair and the results produced were in order of magnitude agreement with accepted literature values.

KW - Azo Compounds/chemistry

KW - Chelating Agents/chemistry

KW - Chromatography

KW - High Pressure Liquid/methods

KW - Electrophoresis

KW - Capillary/methods

KW - Hair/chemistry

KW - Humans

KW - Metals/analysis

KW - Spectrophotometry

KW - Atomic/methods

KW - Ultraviolet

M3 - Article

VL - 19

SP - 11

EP - 18

JO - Electrophoresis

T2 - Electrophoresis

JF - Electrophoresis

SN - 0173-0835

IS - 1

ER -