Can the emollients of similar composition be assumed to be therapeutically equivalent: a comparison of skin occlusivity and emulsion microstructure.

Milan Antonijevic, Ovidiu Novac, Barry O'Hagan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Emollient therapy is the mainstay for treating skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. New emollients have been introduced recently and are assumed to be therapeutically interchangeable with the innovator products because, superficially, they appear to have similar compositions. This study compares a) the ex vivo human skin occlusion performance and b) the visual and microscopic properties of Isomol gel (IMG) and Doublebase gel (DBG).
Materials and Methods: Occlusion was measured gravimetrically by reduction in cumulative 48-hour evaporative weight loss from ex vivo human skin samples following single applications of the two test emollients and Vaseline®. Skin samples from a single donor were mounted in Franz diffusion cells and then the emollients were spread over the skin surface with an applied dose of approximately 2 mg/cm2. The assemblies (four replicates per treatment) were then accurately weighed at baseline (T0) and again after 5-, 24-, and 48-hour post application. The quality of the two emollient gel formulations was compared by visual examination of their film-forming characteristics and by microstructural examination using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM).
Results: Occlusivity of the DBG emollient gel formulation was comparable with Vaseline and substantially better than IMG, with the DBG-treated skin samples losing less than half as much weight as the IMG-treated skin samples over 48 hours and at a much slower rate during the first 5 hours. The film-forming characteristics and microstructure of the gels were also very different. Whereas DBG maintained a smooth, uniform film over 24 hours, the IMG formulation
phase-separated. ESEM results showed that the DBG emulsion has a stable structural matrix with uniform oil droplets, whereas for IMG the emulsion system is inhomogeneous with the oil phase coalescing into larger irregular shaped rafts.
Conclusions: We have demonstrated substantial performance differences between two prescribed emollient gels.
LanguageEnglish
JournalClinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 22 Jul 2018

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Emollients
Emulsions
Gels
Skin
Petrolatum
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Oils
Atopic Dermatitis

Keywords

  • gel
  • emollient
  • occlusion
  • microscopy
  • comparison
  • performance

Cite this

@article{5167cc4f084a4bf09010792d627ca1b3,
title = "Can the emollients of similar composition be assumed to be therapeutically equivalent: a comparison of skin occlusivity and emulsion microstructure.",
abstract = "Introduction: Emollient therapy is the mainstay for treating skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. New emollients have been introduced recently and are assumed to be therapeutically interchangeable with the innovator products because, superficially, they appear to have similar compositions. This study compares a) the ex vivo human skin occlusion performance and b) the visual and microscopic properties of Isomol gel (IMG) and Doublebase gel (DBG).Materials and Methods: Occlusion was measured gravimetrically by reduction in cumulative 48-hour evaporative weight loss from ex vivo human skin samples following single applications of the two test emollients and Vaseline{\circledR}. Skin samples from a single donor were mounted in Franz diffusion cells and then the emollients were spread over the skin surface with an applied dose of approximately 2 mg/cm2. The assemblies (four replicates per treatment) were then accurately weighed at baseline (T0) and again after 5-, 24-, and 48-hour post application. The quality of the two emollient gel formulations was compared by visual examination of their film-forming characteristics and by microstructural examination using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM).Results: Occlusivity of the DBG emollient gel formulation was comparable with Vaseline and substantially better than IMG, with the DBG-treated skin samples losing less than half as much weight as the IMG-treated skin samples over 48 hours and at a much slower rate during the first 5 hours. The film-forming characteristics and microstructure of the gels were also very different. Whereas DBG maintained a smooth, uniform film over 24 hours, the IMG formulationphase-separated. ESEM results showed that the DBG emulsion has a stable structural matrix with uniform oil droplets, whereas for IMG the emulsion system is inhomogeneous with the oil phase coalescing into larger irregular shaped rafts.Conclusions: We have demonstrated substantial performance differences between two prescribed emollient gels.",
keywords = "gel , emollient, occlusion, microscopy, comparison, performance",
author = "Milan Antonijevic and Ovidiu Novac and Barry O'Hagan",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "22",
language = "English",
journal = "Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology",
issn = "1178-7015",
publisher = "Dove Medical Press",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Can the emollients of similar composition be assumed to be therapeutically equivalent: a comparison of skin occlusivity and emulsion microstructure.

AU - Antonijevic, Milan

AU - Novac, Ovidiu

AU - O'Hagan, Barry

PY - 2018/7/22

Y1 - 2018/7/22

N2 - Introduction: Emollient therapy is the mainstay for treating skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. New emollients have been introduced recently and are assumed to be therapeutically interchangeable with the innovator products because, superficially, they appear to have similar compositions. This study compares a) the ex vivo human skin occlusion performance and b) the visual and microscopic properties of Isomol gel (IMG) and Doublebase gel (DBG).Materials and Methods: Occlusion was measured gravimetrically by reduction in cumulative 48-hour evaporative weight loss from ex vivo human skin samples following single applications of the two test emollients and Vaseline®. Skin samples from a single donor were mounted in Franz diffusion cells and then the emollients were spread over the skin surface with an applied dose of approximately 2 mg/cm2. The assemblies (four replicates per treatment) were then accurately weighed at baseline (T0) and again after 5-, 24-, and 48-hour post application. The quality of the two emollient gel formulations was compared by visual examination of their film-forming characteristics and by microstructural examination using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM).Results: Occlusivity of the DBG emollient gel formulation was comparable with Vaseline and substantially better than IMG, with the DBG-treated skin samples losing less than half as much weight as the IMG-treated skin samples over 48 hours and at a much slower rate during the first 5 hours. The film-forming characteristics and microstructure of the gels were also very different. Whereas DBG maintained a smooth, uniform film over 24 hours, the IMG formulationphase-separated. ESEM results showed that the DBG emulsion has a stable structural matrix with uniform oil droplets, whereas for IMG the emulsion system is inhomogeneous with the oil phase coalescing into larger irregular shaped rafts.Conclusions: We have demonstrated substantial performance differences between two prescribed emollient gels.

AB - Introduction: Emollient therapy is the mainstay for treating skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. New emollients have been introduced recently and are assumed to be therapeutically interchangeable with the innovator products because, superficially, they appear to have similar compositions. This study compares a) the ex vivo human skin occlusion performance and b) the visual and microscopic properties of Isomol gel (IMG) and Doublebase gel (DBG).Materials and Methods: Occlusion was measured gravimetrically by reduction in cumulative 48-hour evaporative weight loss from ex vivo human skin samples following single applications of the two test emollients and Vaseline®. Skin samples from a single donor were mounted in Franz diffusion cells and then the emollients were spread over the skin surface with an applied dose of approximately 2 mg/cm2. The assemblies (four replicates per treatment) were then accurately weighed at baseline (T0) and again after 5-, 24-, and 48-hour post application. The quality of the two emollient gel formulations was compared by visual examination of their film-forming characteristics and by microstructural examination using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM).Results: Occlusivity of the DBG emollient gel formulation was comparable with Vaseline and substantially better than IMG, with the DBG-treated skin samples losing less than half as much weight as the IMG-treated skin samples over 48 hours and at a much slower rate during the first 5 hours. The film-forming characteristics and microstructure of the gels were also very different. Whereas DBG maintained a smooth, uniform film over 24 hours, the IMG formulationphase-separated. ESEM results showed that the DBG emulsion has a stable structural matrix with uniform oil droplets, whereas for IMG the emulsion system is inhomogeneous with the oil phase coalescing into larger irregular shaped rafts.Conclusions: We have demonstrated substantial performance differences between two prescribed emollient gels.

KW - gel

KW - emollient

KW - occlusion

KW - microscopy

KW - comparison

KW - performance

M3 - Article

JO - Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

T2 - Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

JF - Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

SN - 1178-7015

ER -