Bystander Affiliation Influences Intervention Behavior: A Virtual Reality Study

Aitor Rovira, Richard Southern, David Swapp, Claire Campbell, Jian J. Zhang, Mark Levine, Mel Slater

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1 Citation (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Traditional work on bystander intervention in violent emergencies has found that the larger the group, the less the chance that any individual will intervene. Here, we tested the impact on helping behavior of the affiliation of the bystanders with respect to the participants. We recruited 40 male supporters of the U.K. Arsenal football club for a two-factor between groups study with 10 participants per group. Each participant spoke with a virtual human Arsenal supporter (V), the scenario displayed in a virtual reality system. During this conversation, another virtual character (P), not an Arsenal fan, verbally abused V for being an Arsenal fan leading eventually to physical pushing. There was a group of three virtual bystanders who were all either Arsenal supporters indicated by their shirts, or football fans wearing unbranded shirts. These bystanders either encouraged the participant to intervene or dissuaded him. We recorded the number of times that participants intervened to help V during the aggression. We found that participants were more likely to intervene when the bystanders were out-group with respect to the participant. By comparing levels of intervention with a “baseline” study (identical except for the presence of bystanders), we conclude that the presence of in-group bystanders decreases helping. We argue therefore that, other things being equal, diffusion of responsibility is more likely to be overcome when participant and victim share group membership, but bystanders do not. Our findings help to develop understanding of how diffusion of responsibility works by combining elements of both the bystander effect and the social identity approach to bystander behavior.
Original languageEnglish
Article number21582440211040076
Pages (from-to)1-13
JournalSAGE Open
Volume11
Issue number3
Early online date25 Aug 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article: This research was supported by the UK EPSRC Project EP/F032420/1 “Visual and Behavioural Fidelity of Virtual Humans with Applications to Bystander Intervention in Violent Emergencies.” A.R. is supported by the NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Center BRC-1215-20005. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care. M.S. is supported by the European Research Council Advanced Grant MoTIVE #742989.

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article: This research was supported by the UK EPSRC Project EP/F032420/1 ?Visual and Behavioural Fidelity of Virtual Humans with Applications to Bystander Intervention in Violent Emergencies.? A.R. is supported by the NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Center BRC-1215-20005. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care. M.S. is supported by the European Research Council Advanced Grant MoTIVE #742989.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.

Keywords

  • bystander effect
  • virtual reality
  • social identity approach
  • diffusion of responsibility
  • violence
  • General Arts and Humanities
  • General Social Sciences

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