Blast wave from a hydrogen tank rupture in a fire in the open: Hazard distance nomograms

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The nomograms for graphical calculation of hazard distances and zones from a blast wave generated by a stand-alone (stationary) and an onboard (under-vehicle) high-pressure hydrogen tank ruptures in a fire are presented. The nomograms can be used by first responders, hydrogen safety engineers and other stakeholders to determine hazard distances and zones based on a blast wave strength characterised by both overpressure and impulse. The nomograms were built using the validated physical model of a blast wave decay published by the authors and accounting for the contribution of combustion into the blast wave strength. Two types of nomograms are developed: one for on-site use by the first responders, and another for design of hydrogen systems and infrastructure by hydrogen safety engineers. The paper underlines the importance of international regulatory activities to unify harm to people and damage to buildings criteria across different countries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2429-2446
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number3
Early online date6 Dec 2019
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jan 2020


  • Blast wave
  • Combustion
  • Engineering tool
  • Hydrogen
  • Rupture
  • Storage


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