This study addresses one of knowledge gaps in hydrogen safety science and engineering, i.e. apredictive model for calculation of deterministic separation distances defined by the parameters of ablast wave generated by a high-pressure gas storage tank rupture in a fire. An overview of existingmethods to calculate stored in a tank internal (mechanical) energy and a blast wave decay is presented.Predictions by the existing technique and an original model developed in this study, which accountsfor the real gas effects and combustion of the flammable gas released into the air (chemical energy),are compared against experimental data on high-pressure hydrogen tank rupture in the bonfire test.The main reason for a poor predictive capability of the existing models is the absence of combustioncontribution to the blast wave strength. The developed methodology is able to reproduce experimentaldata on a blast wave decay after rupture of a stand-alone hydrogen tank and a tank under a vehicle. Inthis study, the chemical energy is dynamically added to the mechanical energy and is accounted for inthe energy-scaled non-dimensional distance. The fraction of the total chemical energy of combustionreleased to feed the blast wave is 5% and 9%, however it is 1.4 and 30 times larger than themechanical energy in the stand-alone tank test and the under-vehicle tank test respectively. The model is applied as a safety engineering tool to four typical hydrogen storage applications, including on-board vehicle storage tanks and a stand-alone refuelling station storage tank. Harm criteria to people and damage criteria for buildings from a blast wave are selected by the authors from literature to demonstrate the calculation of deterministic separation distances. Safety strategies should exclude effects of fire on stationary storage vessels, and require thermal protection of on-board storage to prevent dangerous consequences of high-pressure tank rupture in a fire.
|Title of host publication||Unknown Host Publication|
|Publisher||International Association for Hydrogen Safety|
|Number of pages||34|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 15 Jul 2015|
|Event||International Conference on Hydrogen Safety - Yokohama, Japan|
Duration: 15 Jul 2015 → …
|Conference||International Conference on Hydrogen Safety|
|Period||15/07/15 → …|
Molkov, V., & Kashkarov, S. (Accepted/In press). BLAST WAVE FROM A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS TANK RUPTURE IN A FIRE: STAND-ALONE AND UNDER-VEHICLE HYDROGEN TANKS. In Unknown Host Publication International Association for Hydrogen Safety.