Blast wave from a high-pressure gas tank rupture in a fire: Stand-alone and under-vehicle hydrogen tanks

Vladimir Molkov, Sergii Kashkarov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study addresses one of knowledge gaps in hydrogen safety science and engineering, i.e. a predictive model for calculation of deterministic separation distances defined by the parameters of a blast wave generated by a high-pressure gas storage tank rupture in a fire. An overview of existing methods to calculate stored in a tank internal (mechanical) energy and a blast wave decay is presented. Predictions by the existing technique and an original model developed in this study, which accounts for the real gas effects and combustion of the flammable gas released into the air (chemical energy), are compared against experimentaldata on high-pкessure hydrogen tank rupture in the bonfire test. The main reason for a poor predictive capability of the existing models is the absence of combustion contribution to the blast wave strength. The developed methodology is able to reproduce experimental data on a blast wave decay after rupture of a stand-alone hydrogen tank and a tank under a vehicle. In this study, the chemical energy is dynamically added to themechanical energy and is accounted for in the energy-scaled non-dimensional distance. The fraction of the total chemical energy of combustion released to feed the blast wave is 5% and 9%, however it is 1.4 and 30 times larger than the mechanical energy in the standalone tank test and the under-vehicle tank test respectively. The model is applied as a safety engineering tool to four typical hydrogen storage applications, including on-board vehicle storage tanks and a stand-alone refuelling station storage tank. Harm criteria topeople and damage criteria for buildings from a blast wave are selected by the authors from literature to demonstrate the calculation of deterministic separation distances. Safety strategies should exclude effects of fire on stationary storage vessels, and require thermal protection of on-board storage to prevent dangerous consequences of high-pressure tank rupture in a fire.
LanguageEnglish
Pages12581-12603
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume40
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sep 2015

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blasts
vehicles
Fires
storage tanks
chemical energy
Hydrogen
hydrogen
Gases
gases
safety
flammable gases
engineering
Safety engineering
real gases
thermal protection
Gas fuel storage
refueling
energy
Hydrogen storage
decay

Keywords

  • Blast wave
  • Overpressure
  • Impulse
  • Deterministic separation distance
  • Hydrogen
  • Model

Cite this

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title = "Blast wave from a high-pressure gas tank rupture in a fire: Stand-alone and under-vehicle hydrogen tanks",
abstract = "This study addresses one of knowledge gaps in hydrogen safety science and engineering, i.e. a predictive model for calculation of deterministic separation distances defined by the parameters of a blast wave generated by a high-pressure gas storage tank rupture in a fire. An overview of existing methods to calculate stored in a tank internal (mechanical) energy and a blast wave decay is presented. Predictions by the existing technique and an original model developed in this study, which accounts for the real gas effects and combustion of the flammable gas released into the air (chemical energy), are compared against experimentaldata on high-pкessure hydrogen tank rupture in the bonfire test. The main reason for a poor predictive capability of the existing models is the absence of combustion contribution to the blast wave strength. The developed methodology is able to reproduce experimental data on a blast wave decay after rupture of a stand-alone hydrogen tank and a tank under a vehicle. In this study, the chemical energy is dynamically added to themechanical energy and is accounted for in the energy-scaled non-dimensional distance. The fraction of the total chemical energy of combustion released to feed the blast wave is 5{\%} and 9{\%}, however it is 1.4 and 30 times larger than the mechanical energy in the standalone tank test and the under-vehicle tank test respectively. The model is applied as a safety engineering tool to four typical hydrogen storage applications, including on-board vehicle storage tanks and a stand-alone refuelling station storage tank. Harm criteria topeople and damage criteria for buildings from a blast wave are selected by the authors from literature to demonstrate the calculation of deterministic separation distances. Safety strategies should exclude effects of fire on stationary storage vessels, and require thermal protection of on-board storage to prevent dangerous consequences of high-pressure tank rupture in a fire.",
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Blast wave from a high-pressure gas tank rupture in a fire: Stand-alone and under-vehicle hydrogen tanks. / Molkov, Vladimir; Kashkarov, Sergii.

In: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 40, No. 36, 28.09.2015, p. 12581-12603.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Molkov, Vladimir

AU - Kashkarov, Sergii

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N2 - This study addresses one of knowledge gaps in hydrogen safety science and engineering, i.e. a predictive model for calculation of deterministic separation distances defined by the parameters of a blast wave generated by a high-pressure gas storage tank rupture in a fire. An overview of existing methods to calculate stored in a tank internal (mechanical) energy and a blast wave decay is presented. Predictions by the existing technique and an original model developed in this study, which accounts for the real gas effects and combustion of the flammable gas released into the air (chemical energy), are compared against experimentaldata on high-pкessure hydrogen tank rupture in the bonfire test. The main reason for a poor predictive capability of the existing models is the absence of combustion contribution to the blast wave strength. The developed methodology is able to reproduce experimental data on a blast wave decay after rupture of a stand-alone hydrogen tank and a tank under a vehicle. In this study, the chemical energy is dynamically added to themechanical energy and is accounted for in the energy-scaled non-dimensional distance. The fraction of the total chemical energy of combustion released to feed the blast wave is 5% and 9%, however it is 1.4 and 30 times larger than the mechanical energy in the standalone tank test and the under-vehicle tank test respectively. The model is applied as a safety engineering tool to four typical hydrogen storage applications, including on-board vehicle storage tanks and a stand-alone refuelling station storage tank. Harm criteria topeople and damage criteria for buildings from a blast wave are selected by the authors from literature to demonstrate the calculation of deterministic separation distances. Safety strategies should exclude effects of fire on stationary storage vessels, and require thermal protection of on-board storage to prevent dangerous consequences of high-pressure tank rupture in a fire.

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