Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using leaf extract of Dittrichia viscosa and in vivo assessment of its anti-diabetic efficacy

Sanaa Ayyoub, Bahaa Al-Trad, Alaa A A Aljabali, Walhan Alshaer, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Sahar Omari, Diaa Fayyad, Murtaza M Tambuwala

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Several studies have reported the anti-diabetic effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). This study was designed to investigate the in vivo anti-diabetic activity of AuNPs synthesized using the leaf extract of Dittrichia viscosa in a high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. AuNPs were synthesized using the leaf extract of D. viscosa, and the synthesized AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To study the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the AuNPs formed using D. viscosa extract, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (6-8 rats/group) as follows: control group, a diabetic group without treatment, and a diabetic group treated intraperitoneally with a daily injection of AuNPs at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days. Diabetes was induced by maintaining the rats on HFD for 2 weeks, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg of STZ. Serum and liver samples were collected at the end of the treatment period and used to measure glucose levels and hepatic gene expression and activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the rate-limiting enzyme in the liver gluconeogenic pathway. The AuNPs formed using D. viscosa extract were mainly spherical with a size range between 20 and 50 nm with good stability and dispersity, as indicated by the zeta potential and DLS measurements. Treatment with AuNP significantly lowered the blood glucose level, the gene expression, and the activity of hepatic PEPCK in comparison to the diabetic untreated group (P 
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2993-2999
Number of pages7
JournalDrug Delivery and Translational Research
Issue number12
Early online date30 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Deanship of Scientific Research and Graduate Studies at the University of Yarmouk funded this work (grant number 47/2021).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Nanomedicine
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hepatic gluconeogenesis
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • PEPCK activity
  • Dittrichia viscosa
  • Liver
  • Rats
  • Blood Glucose
  • Male
  • Gold/pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
  • Glucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Animals
  • Metal Nanoparticles


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