This review describes the role of suitable and modified microorganisms as economical biocatalysts in the processing of by-products generated in industries and agriculture, which are cheaply available globally as renewable resources. Since the microbial processing can be economically used to produce a variety of value-added products, by employing specific species of microorganisms as biocatalysts; but to be specific to the title of this review the information included in this article has only emphasized on one important consumer-product bioethanol. The conclusion of the information gathered in this review is that, the selection and modification of a microbial biocatalyst should be strategically done. For example: employing an yeast strain of Saccharomyces or a non-Saccharomyces culture, is important in bioethanol synthesis; the optimisation of biocatalyst is also important according to the type of material being processed in the system as it could be a by-product or waste residue of agriculture, food & beverage industry or simply the seasonal locally available fruits. The other information, which has been included in this review, is on the modification of biocatalysts and important factors influencing the efficiency of bioprocessing, for the necessity of economical yield of bioethanol.
- agro food wastes