Biochar and Renewable Energy Generation from Poultry Litter Waste: A Technical and Economic Analysis Based on Computational Simulations

Ye Huang, Mark Anderson, David McIlveen-Wright, G. A. Lyons, W. C. McRoberts, Yaodong Wang, Tony Roskilly, Neil Hewitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The technical and economic analysis of generating biochar together with electricity and/or heat from poultry litter (PL) waste is the subject of this study. To carry out this study, the process simulation software ECLIPSE is used. Modelling and simulation have been conducted over the selected system: the pyrolysis/gasification process integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The facility will be capable of processing 1500kg of PL every hour. The simulation shows that when a reference PL is used the yield of biochar from the process is around 398kg/hour with a 38% carbon content. Electricity generated by the ORC system is 388kWhe. Recovered low grade heat for space heating is estimated at 1831kWhth. The results of the economic analysis suggest that when paying £20/tonne for handling and storing the feedstock without any options of selling either heat or electricity, the break-even selling price (BESP) of biochar is around £218/tonne. If the sale of electricity and heat produced is considered to be around £60/MWhe and £5/MWhth, the BESP will decrease to £178/tonne. The case studies also indicate that when a gate fee of £10/tonne is introduced the BESP can be further reduced to £65/tonne, equivalent to a 63% reduction. On the other hand if biochar generated has an average price of £150/tonne in the market and the plant receives one Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) from the Government, the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) for the electricity generation will be £46/MWhe, which is compatible with electricity generated by fossil fuel power plants.
LanguageEnglish
Pages656-663
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Energy
Volume160
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015

Fingerprint

Poultry
Economic analysis
Electricity
Sales
Rankine cycle
Fossil fuel power plants
Space heating
Gasification
Feedstocks
Pyrolysis
Carbon
Hot Temperature
Processing

Keywords

  • techno-economic analysis
  • modelling and simulation
  • poultry litter
  • biochar
  • updraft gasifier

Cite this

Huang, Ye ; Anderson, Mark ; McIlveen-Wright, David ; Lyons, G. A. ; McRoberts, W. C. ; Wang, Yaodong ; Roskilly, Tony ; Hewitt, Neil. / Biochar and Renewable Energy Generation from Poultry Litter Waste: A Technical and Economic Analysis Based on Computational Simulations. 2015 ; Vol. 160. pp. 656-663.
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title = "Biochar and Renewable Energy Generation from Poultry Litter Waste: A Technical and Economic Analysis Based on Computational Simulations",
abstract = "The technical and economic analysis of generating biochar together with electricity and/or heat from poultry litter (PL) waste is the subject of this study. To carry out this study, the process simulation software ECLIPSE is used. Modelling and simulation have been conducted over the selected system: the pyrolysis/gasification process integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The facility will be capable of processing 1500kg of PL every hour. The simulation shows that when a reference PL is used the yield of biochar from the process is around 398kg/hour with a 38{\%} carbon content. Electricity generated by the ORC system is 388kWhe. Recovered low grade heat for space heating is estimated at 1831kWhth. The results of the economic analysis suggest that when paying £20/tonne for handling and storing the feedstock without any options of selling either heat or electricity, the break-even selling price (BESP) of biochar is around £218/tonne. If the sale of electricity and heat produced is considered to be around £60/MWhe and £5/MWhth, the BESP will decrease to £178/tonne. The case studies also indicate that when a gate fee of £10/tonne is introduced the BESP can be further reduced to £65/tonne, equivalent to a 63{\%} reduction. On the other hand if biochar generated has an average price of £150/tonne in the market and the plant receives one Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) from the Government, the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) for the electricity generation will be £46/MWhe, which is compatible with electricity generated by fossil fuel power plants.",
keywords = "techno-economic analysis, modelling and simulation, poultry litter, biochar, updraft gasifier",
author = "Ye Huang and Mark Anderson and David McIlveen-Wright and Lyons, {G. A.} and McRoberts, {W. C.} and Yaodong Wang and Tony Roskilly and Neil Hewitt",
note = "Reference text: [1] Launch of Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI) Competition for the Sustainable Utilisation of Poultry Litter, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, www.teagasc.ie/energy/news/dec2012/Launch_of_Small_Business_Research_Initiative.pdf. [2] http://www.innovateuk.org/-/sustainable-utilisation-of-poultry-litter, December 2012 [3] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/index_en.html [4] http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/files/pub-vet-botulism.pdf. [5] F. Cotana, et al, Energy valorisation of poultry manure in a thermal power plant: experimental campaign, Energy Procedia (2014), Volume 45, Pages 315-322 [6] D. Matovic, Biochar as a viable carbon sequestration option: Global and Canadian perspective, Energy (2011), Volume 36, Pages 2011-2016. [7] S. Jeffery, et al, A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (2011), Volume 144, Pages 175–187 [8] The University of Ulster, ECLIPSE Process Simulator, Energy Research Centre, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, 1992. [9] D. Lynch, et al, Utilisation of poultry litter as an energy feedstock, Biomass and Bioenergy (2013), Volume 49, Pages 197-204 [10] D.R. McIlveen-Wright, Y. Huang, et al, A Techno-economic assessment of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass co-combustion, FUEL (2011), Volume 90, Issue 1, Pages 11-18. [11] http://www.nrbp.org/pdfs/pub20b.pdf [12] J. Windeatt, et al, Characteristics of biochars from crop residues: Potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment, Journal of Environmental Management (2014), Volume 146, Pages 189-197 [13] http://www.britishbiocharfoundation.org [14] http://www.european-biochar.org/en/home [15] http://www.dardni.gov.uk/review-of-nitrates-action-programme [16] D. McIlveen-Wright, M. Moglie, et al, A techno-economic analysis of biomass gasifiers integrated with high and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, International Journal of Energy Research (2011), Volume 35, Issue 12, Pages 1037-1047 [17] Y. Huang, et al, Comparative techno-economic analysis of biomass fuelled combined heat and power for commercial buildings. Applied Energy (2013), Volume112, pp 518-525 [18] D. McIlveen-Wright, Y. Huang, et al, A technical and economic analysis of three large scale biomass combustion plants in the UK. Applied Energy (2013), Volume 112, pp 396-404 [19] L. Zhao, JJ. Bao, Thermodynamic analysis of organic Rankine cycle using zeotropic mixtures, Applied Energy (2014), Volume 130, Pages 748-756 [20] A. Toffolo, et al, A multi-criteria approach for the optimal selection of working fluid and design parameters in Organic Rankine Cycle systems, Applied Energy (2014), Volume 121, Pages 219-232 [21] A. Schuster, S. Karellas, et al, Energetic and economic investigation of Organic Rankine Cycle applications, Applied Thermal Engineering (2009), Volume 29, Issues 8-9, Pages 1809-1817. [22] V. Maci{\'a}n, et al, Methodology to design a bottoming Rankine cycle, as a waste energy recovering system in vehicles. Study in a HDD engine. Applied Energy (2013) 104, Pages 758-771 [23] Environmental Permitting Guidance, the Large Combustion Plants Directive (LCPD), 2010, ttps://www.defra.gov.uk [24]https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/211292/ro_banding_levels_2013_17.pdf [25] G. Manzolini, et al, Economic assessment of novel amine based CO2 capture technologies integrated in power plants based on European Benchmarking Task Force methodology, Applied Energy (2015), Volume 138, Pages 546-558 [26] Miet Van Dael, et al, A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park, Applied Energy (2013) Volume 104, Pages 611-622",
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Biochar and Renewable Energy Generation from Poultry Litter Waste: A Technical and Economic Analysis Based on Computational Simulations. / Huang, Ye; Anderson, Mark; McIlveen-Wright, David; Lyons, G. A.; McRoberts, W. C.; Wang, Yaodong; Roskilly, Tony; Hewitt, Neil.

Vol. 160, 12.2015, p. 656-663.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Biochar and Renewable Energy Generation from Poultry Litter Waste: A Technical and Economic Analysis Based on Computational Simulations

AU - Huang, Ye

AU - Anderson, Mark

AU - McIlveen-Wright, David

AU - Lyons, G. A.

AU - McRoberts, W. C.

AU - Wang, Yaodong

AU - Roskilly, Tony

AU - Hewitt, Neil

N1 - Reference text: [1] Launch of Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI) Competition for the Sustainable Utilisation of Poultry Litter, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, www.teagasc.ie/energy/news/dec2012/Launch_of_Small_Business_Research_Initiative.pdf. [2] http://www.innovateuk.org/-/sustainable-utilisation-of-poultry-litter, December 2012 [3] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/index_en.html [4] http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/files/pub-vet-botulism.pdf. [5] F. Cotana, et al, Energy valorisation of poultry manure in a thermal power plant: experimental campaign, Energy Procedia (2014), Volume 45, Pages 315-322 [6] D. Matovic, Biochar as a viable carbon sequestration option: Global and Canadian perspective, Energy (2011), Volume 36, Pages 2011-2016. [7] S. Jeffery, et al, A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (2011), Volume 144, Pages 175–187 [8] The University of Ulster, ECLIPSE Process Simulator, Energy Research Centre, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, 1992. [9] D. Lynch, et al, Utilisation of poultry litter as an energy feedstock, Biomass and Bioenergy (2013), Volume 49, Pages 197-204 [10] D.R. McIlveen-Wright, Y. Huang, et al, A Techno-economic assessment of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass co-combustion, FUEL (2011), Volume 90, Issue 1, Pages 11-18. [11] http://www.nrbp.org/pdfs/pub20b.pdf [12] J. Windeatt, et al, Characteristics of biochars from crop residues: Potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment, Journal of Environmental Management (2014), Volume 146, Pages 189-197 [13] http://www.britishbiocharfoundation.org [14] http://www.european-biochar.org/en/home [15] http://www.dardni.gov.uk/review-of-nitrates-action-programme [16] D. McIlveen-Wright, M. Moglie, et al, A techno-economic analysis of biomass gasifiers integrated with high and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, International Journal of Energy Research (2011), Volume 35, Issue 12, Pages 1037-1047 [17] Y. Huang, et al, Comparative techno-economic analysis of biomass fuelled combined heat and power for commercial buildings. Applied Energy (2013), Volume112, pp 518-525 [18] D. McIlveen-Wright, Y. Huang, et al, A technical and economic analysis of three large scale biomass combustion plants in the UK. Applied Energy (2013), Volume 112, pp 396-404 [19] L. Zhao, JJ. Bao, Thermodynamic analysis of organic Rankine cycle using zeotropic mixtures, Applied Energy (2014), Volume 130, Pages 748-756 [20] A. Toffolo, et al, A multi-criteria approach for the optimal selection of working fluid and design parameters in Organic Rankine Cycle systems, Applied Energy (2014), Volume 121, Pages 219-232 [21] A. Schuster, S. Karellas, et al, Energetic and economic investigation of Organic Rankine Cycle applications, Applied Thermal Engineering (2009), Volume 29, Issues 8-9, Pages 1809-1817. [22] V. Macián, et al, Methodology to design a bottoming Rankine cycle, as a waste energy recovering system in vehicles. Study in a HDD engine. Applied Energy (2013) 104, Pages 758-771 [23] Environmental Permitting Guidance, the Large Combustion Plants Directive (LCPD), 2010, ttps://www.defra.gov.uk [24]https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/211292/ro_banding_levels_2013_17.pdf [25] G. Manzolini, et al, Economic assessment of novel amine based CO2 capture technologies integrated in power plants based on European Benchmarking Task Force methodology, Applied Energy (2015), Volume 138, Pages 546-558 [26] Miet Van Dael, et al, A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park, Applied Energy (2013) Volume 104, Pages 611-622

PY - 2015/12

Y1 - 2015/12

N2 - The technical and economic analysis of generating biochar together with electricity and/or heat from poultry litter (PL) waste is the subject of this study. To carry out this study, the process simulation software ECLIPSE is used. Modelling and simulation have been conducted over the selected system: the pyrolysis/gasification process integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The facility will be capable of processing 1500kg of PL every hour. The simulation shows that when a reference PL is used the yield of biochar from the process is around 398kg/hour with a 38% carbon content. Electricity generated by the ORC system is 388kWhe. Recovered low grade heat for space heating is estimated at 1831kWhth. The results of the economic analysis suggest that when paying £20/tonne for handling and storing the feedstock without any options of selling either heat or electricity, the break-even selling price (BESP) of biochar is around £218/tonne. If the sale of electricity and heat produced is considered to be around £60/MWhe and £5/MWhth, the BESP will decrease to £178/tonne. The case studies also indicate that when a gate fee of £10/tonne is introduced the BESP can be further reduced to £65/tonne, equivalent to a 63% reduction. On the other hand if biochar generated has an average price of £150/tonne in the market and the plant receives one Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) from the Government, the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) for the electricity generation will be £46/MWhe, which is compatible with electricity generated by fossil fuel power plants.

AB - The technical and economic analysis of generating biochar together with electricity and/or heat from poultry litter (PL) waste is the subject of this study. To carry out this study, the process simulation software ECLIPSE is used. Modelling and simulation have been conducted over the selected system: the pyrolysis/gasification process integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The facility will be capable of processing 1500kg of PL every hour. The simulation shows that when a reference PL is used the yield of biochar from the process is around 398kg/hour with a 38% carbon content. Electricity generated by the ORC system is 388kWhe. Recovered low grade heat for space heating is estimated at 1831kWhth. The results of the economic analysis suggest that when paying £20/tonne for handling and storing the feedstock without any options of selling either heat or electricity, the break-even selling price (BESP) of biochar is around £218/tonne. If the sale of electricity and heat produced is considered to be around £60/MWhe and £5/MWhth, the BESP will decrease to £178/tonne. The case studies also indicate that when a gate fee of £10/tonne is introduced the BESP can be further reduced to £65/tonne, equivalent to a 63% reduction. On the other hand if biochar generated has an average price of £150/tonne in the market and the plant receives one Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) from the Government, the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) for the electricity generation will be £46/MWhe, which is compatible with electricity generated by fossil fuel power plants.

KW - techno-economic analysis

KW - modelling and simulation

KW - poultry litter

KW - biochar

KW - updraft gasifier

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DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.029

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