Bioavailability of vitamin D biofortified pork meat: results of an acute human crossover study in healthy adults

H. R. Neill, C. I. R. Gill, E. J. McDonald, W. C. McRoberts, R. McAleenon, M. M. Slevin, D. Cobice, Rachael McMurray, R. Loy, A. White, L. K. Pourshahidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Vitamin D intakes are concerningly low. Food-based strategies are urgently warranted to increase vitamin D intakes and subsequently improve 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. This acute randomised three-way crossover study investigated the efficacy of vitamin D biofortified pork derived from pigs exposed to UVB light to increase serum 25(OH)D 3 concentrations, compared to a dose-matched vitamin D 3 supplement and control pork in adults (n = 14). Blood samples were obtained at baseline and then 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 24 h postprandially. There was a significant effect of time (p < 0.01) and a significant treatment*time interaction (p < 0.05). UV pork and supplement significantly increased within-group serum 25(OH)D 3 concentrations over timepoints (p < 0.05) (max. change 0.9 nmol/L (2.2%) UV pork, 1.5 nmol/L (3.5%) supplement, 0.7 nmol/L (1.9%) control). Vitamin D biofortified pork modestly increased 25(OH)D 3 concentrations and produced a similar response pattern as a dose-matched vitamin D supplement, but biofortification protocols should be further optimised to ensure differentiation from standard pork.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-290
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Issue number2
Early online date26 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 26 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded as part of a Department for the Economy (DfE) Co-operative Awards in Science and Technology (CAST) PhD studentship, supported by Devenish Nutrition Limited. The authors wish to thank Richard Little, David Lyttle and Sloane Browne from AFBI Hillsborough for their commitment to animal care and management. Gratitude is also expressed to Dr Sara Dobbin and Laura Beggan for their assistance with laboratory analysis, as well as Massimiliano Fontana and Maria Wesolowska for their help with the practical running of the human intervention.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Food Science
  • 25(OH)D3
  • vitamin D status
  • RCT
  • biofortification
  • bioaddition
  • pigs
  • 25(OH)D


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