BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis

Robert Eadie, Mike Browne, Henry Odeyinka, Clare Mahon, Sean McNiff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

192 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Substantial impacts through BIM implementation may be achieved throughout all stages of the construction process. The paper measures BIM use throughout the project lifecycle, confirming BIM is most often used in the early stages with progressively less use in the latter stages. This research demonstrates via 92 responses from a sample of BIM users that collaboration aspects produce the highest positive impact. The process aspects are more important than the software technology. BIM necessitates investment in software and training however, smaller practices can afford it. Stakeholder financial benefits are ranked concluding that clients benefit most financially from BIM followed by Facilities Managers. Despite this, over 70% do not provide a 3D model and Cobie dataset at the conclusion of a project. Identification of Key Performance Indicators currently being used for BIM is provided and findings indicate a lack of industry expertise and training providing an opportunity for education providers.
LanguageEnglish
Pages145-151
JournalAutomation in Construction
Volume36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2013

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Education
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Keywords

  • Building Information Modelling
  • BIM advantages
  • BIM disadvantages
  • BIM adoption
  • Construction
  • Project management
  • Facilities Management
  • Training
  • Education
  • Project life cycle

Cite this

Eadie, Robert ; Browne, Mike ; Odeyinka, Henry ; Mahon, Clare ; McNiff, Sean. / BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis. 2013 ; Vol. 36. pp. 145-151.
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abstract = "Substantial impacts through BIM implementation may be achieved throughout all stages of the construction process. The paper measures BIM use throughout the project lifecycle, confirming BIM is most often used in the early stages with progressively less use in the latter stages. This research demonstrates via 92 responses from a sample of BIM users that collaboration aspects produce the highest positive impact. The process aspects are more important than the software technology. BIM necessitates investment in software and training however, smaller practices can afford it. Stakeholder financial benefits are ranked concluding that clients benefit most financially from BIM followed by Facilities Managers. Despite this, over 70{\%} do not provide a 3D model and Cobie dataset at the conclusion of a project. Identification of Key Performance Indicators currently being used for BIM is provided and findings indicate a lack of industry expertise and training providing an opportunity for education providers.",
keywords = "Building Information Modelling, BIM advantages, BIM disadvantages, BIM adoption, Construction, Project management, Facilities Management, Training, Education, Project life cycle",
author = "Robert Eadie and Mike Browne and Henry Odeyinka and Clare Mahon and Sean McNiff",
note = "Reference text: [1]A. Akcamete, B. Akinci, J. Garrett, Potential Utilisation of Building Information Models for PlanningMaintenance Activities, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, 2011. [2] Y. Arayici, P. Coates, L. Koskela, M. Kagioglou, C. Usher, K. O'Reilly, Technology adoption in the BIMimplementation for lean architectural practice, Autom. Constr. 20 (2) (March 2011) 189–195. [3] S. Azhar, M. Khalfan, T. Maqsood, Building information modelling (BIM): now and beyond, Australas. J. Constr. Econ. Build. 12 (4) (2012) 15–28. [4] S. Azhar, Building Information Modelling (BIM): trends, Benefits, Risks and Challenges for the AEC Industry, Leadersh. Manag. Eng. 11 (3) (2011) 241–252. [5] S. Azhar,W. Carlton, D. Olsen, I. Ahmad, Building information modelling for sustainable design and LEED rating analysis, Autom. Constr. 20 (2) (2011) 217–224. [6] S. Azhar, J. Brown, BIM for sustainability analyses, Int. J. Constr. Educ. Res. 5 (4) (2009) 276–292. [7] S. Azhar, M. Hein, B. Sketo, Building information modeling (BIM): benefits, risks and challenges, available on-line at http://ascpro.ascweb.org/chair/paper/ CPGT182002008.pdf2008(accessed January 2013). [8] J. Bartlett, J. Kotrlik, C. Higgins, Organisational research: determining appropriate sample size in survey research, Inf. Technol. Learn. Perform. J. 19 (1) (2001) 43–50. [9] V. Bazjanac, Virtual building environments (VBE) — applying informationmodelling to buildings, in: A. Dikbas, R. Scherer (Eds.), eWork and eBusiness in Architecture Engineering and Construction, Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 2006. [10] B. Becerik-Gerber, S. Rice, The perceived value of building information modeling in the U.S. building industry, J. Inf. Technol. Constr. (ITcon) 15 (2010) 185–201. [11] D. Bender, Implementing building information modeling in the top 100 architecture firms, J. Build. Inf. Model. 2010 (Spring 2010) 23–24. [12] Bentley, About BIM, available on-line at http://www.bentley.com/en-US/Solutions/ Buildings/About+BIM.htm2012(accessed January 2013). [13] BIMhub, Benefits of BIM, Available on-line at http://www.bimhub.com/level-upbim/ paas/2012(accessed January 2013). [14] BIM Industry working Group, A report for the Government Construction Client Group Building Information Modelling (BIM) Working Party Strategy Paper, available on-line at http://www.bimtaskgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/BISBIM- strategy-Report.pdf2011(accessed January 2013). [15] J. Birkeland, Eco-retrofitting with building integrated living systems, Proceedings of the 3rd CIB International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Built Environment: SASBE09, Delft University of Technology, 2009, pp. 1–9. [16] K. Breetzke, M. Hawkins, Project Extranets and E-Procurement: User Perspectives, RICS, London, UK, 2009. [17] G. Brewer, T. Gajendran, A Case Study of the Effects of Attitude, Behaviour, and Project Team Culture on Building Information Model Use in a Temporary Project Organisation, CIB, 2010. (available online at http://itc.scix.net/data/works/att/w78-2010- 94.pdf (accessed February 2013)). [18] BSI, Constructing the Business Case: Building information modelling, British Standards Institution UK, London, 2010. [19] S. Christensen, J. McNamara, K. O'Shea, Legal and contracting issues in electronic project administration in the construction industry, Struct. Surv. 25 (3/4) (2007) 191–203. [20] F. Cheung, J. Rihan, J. Tah, D. Duce, E. Kurul, Early stage multi-level cost estimation for schematic BIM models, Autom. Constr. 27 (2012) 67–77. [21] Constructing Excellence, Introduction to KPIs and Benchmarking, available on-line at http://www.constructingexcellence.org.uk/zones/kpizone/whatisbenchmarking. jsp2010(Accessed February 2013). [22] R. Crotty, The Impact of Building Information Modelling Transforming Construction, 1st ed. Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 2012. [23] N. Dawood, N. Iqbal, Building information modelling (BIM): a visual & whole life cycle approach, CONVR2010, Sendai, Japan, November 4–5, 2010, in: K. Makanae, N. Yabuki, K. Kashiyama (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, CONVR2010 Organizing Committee, 2010, pp. 7–14. [24] A. Denzer, K. Hedges, From CAD to BIM: Educational Strategies for the Coming Paradigm Shift, AEI, 2008. (available on-line at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/ 41002(328)6 (accessed February 2013)). [25] W. East,W. Brodt, BIM for construction handover, J. Build. Inf. Model. (2007) 28–35. [26] Efficiency and Reform Group, Government Construction Strategy, Cabinet Office, London, UK, 2011. [27] C. Furneaux, R. Kivvits, BIM — Implications For Government, CRC for Construction Innovation, Brisbane, 2008. (available on-line at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/26997/ (accessed February 2013)). [28] B. Giel, R.R.A. Issa, S. Olbina, Return on Investment Analysis of Building Information Modelling in Construction, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, 2010. [29] J. Goedert, P.Meadati, Integrating construction process documentation into building information modeling, J. Constr. Eng. Manag. 134 (7) (2008) 509–516. [30] A. Grilo, R. Jardim-Goncalves, Challenging electronic procurement in the AEC sector: a BIM-based integrated perspective, Autom. Constr. 20 (2) (2011) 107–114. [31] A. Grilo, R. Jardim-Goncalves, Value proposition on interoperability of BIM and collaborative working environments, Autom. Constr. 19 (5) (August 2010) 522–530. [32] N. Ham, M. Kyung-Min, K. Ju-Hyung, L. Yoon-Sun, K. Jae-Jun, A study on application of bim (building information modeling) to pre-design in construction project, Proceedings of Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, 2008. ICCIT'08, vol. 1, IEEE, 2008, pp. 42–49. [33] B. Hardin, BIMand ConstructionManagement, 1st ed.Wiley Publishing Ltd., Indiana, USA, 2009. [34] D. Holzer, Are you talking to me? Why BIM alone is not the answer, available online at http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/ocs/index.php/AASA/2007/paper/viewFile/48/ 522007(accessed February 2013). [35] A. Hore, R. Montague, K. Thomas, F. Cullen, Advancing the use of BIMthrough a government funded construction industry competency centre in Ireland, CIB W78 2011: 28th International Conference, Paris, 26–28 October 2011, 2011. [36] R. Howard, B. Bj{\"o}rk, Building information modelling — experts' views on standardisation and industry deployment, Adv. Eng. Inform. 22 (2) (April 2008) 271–280. [37] D. Huber, B. Akinci, A. Oliver, E. Anil, B. Okorn, X. Xiong, Methods for automatically modeling and representing as-built building information models, Proceedings of the NSF CMMI Research Innovation Conference, July 9–12 2012, Boston USA, 2011. [38] M. Ibrahim, R. Krawczyk, G. Schipporeit, Two approaches to BIM: a comparative study, Proceedings of Education and Research in computer aided architectural design in Europe, ECAADe, 2004, vol. 22, 2004, pp. 610–616. [39] R. Jardim-Goncalves, A. Grilo, SOA4BIM: putting the building and construction industry in the Single European Information Space, Autom. Constr. 19 (4) (July 2010) 388–397. [40] M. Kagioglou, R. Cooper, G. Aouad, Performance management in construction: a conceptual framework, Constr. Manag. Econ. 19 (1) (January 1 2001) 85–95. [41] D. Kashiwagi, J. Kashiwagi, A. Kashiwagi, K. Sullivan, Best value solution designed in a developing country, J. Adv. Perform. Inf. Value 4 (2) (Dec 2012) 223–239. [42] A. Khanzode, M. Fischer, D. Reed, Benefits and lessons learned of implementing building virtual design and construction (VDC) technologies for coordination ofmechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems on a large healthcare project, J. Inf. Technol. Constr. (ITcon) 13 (2008) 324–342(Special Issue Case studies of BIM use). [43] T. Kouider, G. Paterson, C. Thomson, BIM as a viable collaborative working tool: a case study, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2007 Conference, Nanjing, China, 2007. [44] K. Ku, M. Taiebat, BIM experiences and expectations: the constructors' perspective, Int. J. Constr. Educ. Res. 7 (3) (2011) 175–197. [45] W. Kymmell, Building Information Modelling: Planning and Managing Construction Projects with 4D CAD and Simulations, McGraw Hill New York, USA, 2008. [46] R. Leicht, S. Fox, T. M{\"a}kelainen, J. Messner, Building information models, display media, and team performance: an exploratory study, VTT Working Paper, 2007, (available on-line at http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/workingpapers/2007/ W88.pdf (accessed February 2013)). [47] V. Luu, S. Kim, T. Huynh, Improving project management performance of large contractors using benchmarking approach, Int. J. Proj. Manag. 26 (7) (2008) 758–769. [48] M. Marzouk, M. Hisham, S. Ismail, M. Youssef, O. Seif, On the use of Building Information Modeling in infrastructure bridges, available on-line at http://itc.scix.net/ data/works/att/w78-2010-135.pdf2010(accessed February 2013). [49] G. Mayo, B. Giel, R. Issa, BIMuse and requirements among building owners, Comput. Civ. Eng. (June 2012) 349–356. [50] McGraw Hill, The business value of BIM: getting building information modeling to the bottom line, available online at http://www.bim.construction.com/research/ 2009(accessed February 2013). [51] N. Nawari, BIM standard in off-site construction, J. Archit. Eng. 18 (2) (2012) 107–113. [52] A. Oluwole, A preliminary review on the legal implications of BIM and model ownership, J. Inf. Technol. Constr. (ITcon) 16 (2011) 687–696(available online at http:// www.itcon.org/2011/40 (accessed January 2013)). [53] S. Race, BIM Demystified, 1st ed. RIBA Publishing, UK, London, 2012. [54] R. Sebastian, Breaking through business and legal barriers of open collaborative processes based on Building Information Modelling (BIM), Proceedings ofW113 — Special Track, 18th CIB World Building Congress, May 2010 Salford, United Kingdom, 2010, (available on-line at http://www.lawlectures.co.uk/w113/ documents/wbc2010-proceedings.pdf#page=172 (accessed February 2013)). [55] B. Succar, Building information modelling framework: a research and delivery foundation for industry stakeholders, Autom. Constr. 18 (3) (2009) 357–375. [56] P. Tang, D. Huber, B. Akinci, R. Lipman, A. Lytle, Automatic reconstruction of as-built building information models from laser-scanned point clouds: a review of related techniques, Autom. Constr. 19 (7) (2010) 829–843. [57] D. Thompson, R. Miner, Building Information Modeling — BIM: contractual risks are changing with technology, available online at http://aepronet.infinityit.com/Guest{\%} 20Essays/GE{\%}20-{\%}202006_09{\%}20-{\%}20Building{\%}20Information{\%}20Modeling. pdf2010(accessed January 2013). [58] K. Udom, Building Information Modelling, Available online at http://www.thenbs. com/topics/bim/articles/bimMappingOutTheLegalIssues.asp2012(accessed January 2013). [59] R. Vanlande, C. Nicolle, C. Cruz, IFC and building lifecycle management, Autom. Constr. 18 (1) (2008) 70–78. [60] H. Yan, P. Damian, Benefits and barriers of Building Information Modelling, available online at http://homepages.lboro.ac.uk/cvpd2/PDFs/294_Benefits{\%}20and{\%}20Barriers{\%} 20of{\%}20Building{\%}20Information{\%}20Modelling.pdf2008(accessed January 2013). [61] J. Yuan, Y. Zeng, M. Skibniewski, Q. Li, Selection of performance objectives and key performance indicators in PPP projects to achieve value for money, Constr. Manag.Econ. 27 (3) (2009) 253–270.",
year = "2013",
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BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis. / Eadie, Robert; Browne, Mike; Odeyinka, Henry; Mahon, Clare; McNiff, Sean.

Vol. 36, 30.09.2013, p. 145-151.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis

AU - Eadie, Robert

AU - Browne, Mike

AU - Odeyinka, Henry

AU - Mahon, Clare

AU - McNiff, Sean

N1 - Reference text: [1]A. Akcamete, B. Akinci, J. Garrett, Potential Utilisation of Building Information Models for PlanningMaintenance Activities, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, 2011. [2] Y. Arayici, P. Coates, L. Koskela, M. Kagioglou, C. Usher, K. O'Reilly, Technology adoption in the BIMimplementation for lean architectural practice, Autom. Constr. 20 (2) (March 2011) 189–195. [3] S. Azhar, M. Khalfan, T. Maqsood, Building information modelling (BIM): now and beyond, Australas. J. Constr. Econ. Build. 12 (4) (2012) 15–28. [4] S. Azhar, Building Information Modelling (BIM): trends, Benefits, Risks and Challenges for the AEC Industry, Leadersh. Manag. Eng. 11 (3) (2011) 241–252. [5] S. Azhar,W. Carlton, D. Olsen, I. Ahmad, Building information modelling for sustainable design and LEED rating analysis, Autom. Constr. 20 (2) (2011) 217–224. [6] S. Azhar, J. Brown, BIM for sustainability analyses, Int. J. Constr. Educ. Res. 5 (4) (2009) 276–292. [7] S. Azhar, M. Hein, B. Sketo, Building information modeling (BIM): benefits, risks and challenges, available on-line at http://ascpro.ascweb.org/chair/paper/ CPGT182002008.pdf2008(accessed January 2013). [8] J. Bartlett, J. Kotrlik, C. Higgins, Organisational research: determining appropriate sample size in survey research, Inf. Technol. Learn. Perform. J. 19 (1) (2001) 43–50. [9] V. Bazjanac, Virtual building environments (VBE) — applying informationmodelling to buildings, in: A. Dikbas, R. Scherer (Eds.), eWork and eBusiness in Architecture Engineering and Construction, Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 2006. [10] B. Becerik-Gerber, S. Rice, The perceived value of building information modeling in the U.S. building industry, J. Inf. Technol. Constr. (ITcon) 15 (2010) 185–201. [11] D. Bender, Implementing building information modeling in the top 100 architecture firms, J. Build. Inf. Model. 2010 (Spring 2010) 23–24. [12] Bentley, About BIM, available on-line at http://www.bentley.com/en-US/Solutions/ Buildings/About+BIM.htm2012(accessed January 2013). [13] BIMhub, Benefits of BIM, Available on-line at http://www.bimhub.com/level-upbim/ paas/2012(accessed January 2013). [14] BIM Industry working Group, A report for the Government Construction Client Group Building Information Modelling (BIM) Working Party Strategy Paper, available on-line at http://www.bimtaskgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/BISBIM- strategy-Report.pdf2011(accessed January 2013). [15] J. Birkeland, Eco-retrofitting with building integrated living systems, Proceedings of the 3rd CIB International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Built Environment: SASBE09, Delft University of Technology, 2009, pp. 1–9. [16] K. Breetzke, M. Hawkins, Project Extranets and E-Procurement: User Perspectives, RICS, London, UK, 2009. [17] G. Brewer, T. Gajendran, A Case Study of the Effects of Attitude, Behaviour, and Project Team Culture on Building Information Model Use in a Temporary Project Organisation, CIB, 2010. (available online at http://itc.scix.net/data/works/att/w78-2010- 94.pdf (accessed February 2013)). [18] BSI, Constructing the Business Case: Building information modelling, British Standards Institution UK, London, 2010. [19] S. Christensen, J. McNamara, K. O'Shea, Legal and contracting issues in electronic project administration in the construction industry, Struct. Surv. 25 (3/4) (2007) 191–203. [20] F. Cheung, J. Rihan, J. Tah, D. Duce, E. Kurul, Early stage multi-level cost estimation for schematic BIM models, Autom. Constr. 27 (2012) 67–77. [21] Constructing Excellence, Introduction to KPIs and Benchmarking, available on-line at http://www.constructingexcellence.org.uk/zones/kpizone/whatisbenchmarking. jsp2010(Accessed February 2013). [22] R. Crotty, The Impact of Building Information Modelling Transforming Construction, 1st ed. Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 2012. [23] N. Dawood, N. Iqbal, Building information modelling (BIM): a visual & whole life cycle approach, CONVR2010, Sendai, Japan, November 4–5, 2010, in: K. Makanae, N. Yabuki, K. Kashiyama (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, CONVR2010 Organizing Committee, 2010, pp. 7–14. [24] A. Denzer, K. Hedges, From CAD to BIM: Educational Strategies for the Coming Paradigm Shift, AEI, 2008. (available on-line at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/ 41002(328)6 (accessed February 2013)). [25] W. East,W. Brodt, BIM for construction handover, J. Build. Inf. Model. (2007) 28–35. [26] Efficiency and Reform Group, Government Construction Strategy, Cabinet Office, London, UK, 2011. [27] C. Furneaux, R. Kivvits, BIM — Implications For Government, CRC for Construction Innovation, Brisbane, 2008. (available on-line at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/26997/ (accessed February 2013)). [28] B. Giel, R.R.A. Issa, S. Olbina, Return on Investment Analysis of Building Information Modelling in Construction, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, 2010. [29] J. Goedert, P.Meadati, Integrating construction process documentation into building information modeling, J. Constr. Eng. Manag. 134 (7) (2008) 509–516. [30] A. Grilo, R. Jardim-Goncalves, Challenging electronic procurement in the AEC sector: a BIM-based integrated perspective, Autom. Constr. 20 (2) (2011) 107–114. [31] A. Grilo, R. Jardim-Goncalves, Value proposition on interoperability of BIM and collaborative working environments, Autom. Constr. 19 (5) (August 2010) 522–530. [32] N. Ham, M. Kyung-Min, K. Ju-Hyung, L. Yoon-Sun, K. Jae-Jun, A study on application of bim (building information modeling) to pre-design in construction project, Proceedings of Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, 2008. ICCIT'08, vol. 1, IEEE, 2008, pp. 42–49. [33] B. Hardin, BIMand ConstructionManagement, 1st ed.Wiley Publishing Ltd., Indiana, USA, 2009. [34] D. Holzer, Are you talking to me? Why BIM alone is not the answer, available online at http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/ocs/index.php/AASA/2007/paper/viewFile/48/ 522007(accessed February 2013). [35] A. Hore, R. Montague, K. Thomas, F. Cullen, Advancing the use of BIMthrough a government funded construction industry competency centre in Ireland, CIB W78 2011: 28th International Conference, Paris, 26–28 October 2011, 2011. [36] R. Howard, B. Björk, Building information modelling — experts' views on standardisation and industry deployment, Adv. Eng. Inform. 22 (2) (April 2008) 271–280. [37] D. Huber, B. Akinci, A. Oliver, E. Anil, B. Okorn, X. Xiong, Methods for automatically modeling and representing as-built building information models, Proceedings of the NSF CMMI Research Innovation Conference, July 9–12 2012, Boston USA, 2011. [38] M. Ibrahim, R. Krawczyk, G. Schipporeit, Two approaches to BIM: a comparative study, Proceedings of Education and Research in computer aided architectural design in Europe, ECAADe, 2004, vol. 22, 2004, pp. 610–616. [39] R. Jardim-Goncalves, A. Grilo, SOA4BIM: putting the building and construction industry in the Single European Information Space, Autom. Constr. 19 (4) (July 2010) 388–397. [40] M. Kagioglou, R. Cooper, G. Aouad, Performance management in construction: a conceptual framework, Constr. Manag. Econ. 19 (1) (January 1 2001) 85–95. [41] D. Kashiwagi, J. Kashiwagi, A. Kashiwagi, K. Sullivan, Best value solution designed in a developing country, J. Adv. Perform. Inf. Value 4 (2) (Dec 2012) 223–239. [42] A. Khanzode, M. Fischer, D. Reed, Benefits and lessons learned of implementing building virtual design and construction (VDC) technologies for coordination ofmechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems on a large healthcare project, J. Inf. Technol. Constr. (ITcon) 13 (2008) 324–342(Special Issue Case studies of BIM use). [43] T. Kouider, G. Paterson, C. Thomson, BIM as a viable collaborative working tool: a case study, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2007 Conference, Nanjing, China, 2007. [44] K. Ku, M. Taiebat, BIM experiences and expectations: the constructors' perspective, Int. J. Constr. Educ. Res. 7 (3) (2011) 175–197. [45] W. Kymmell, Building Information Modelling: Planning and Managing Construction Projects with 4D CAD and Simulations, McGraw Hill New York, USA, 2008. [46] R. Leicht, S. Fox, T. Mäkelainen, J. Messner, Building information models, display media, and team performance: an exploratory study, VTT Working Paper, 2007, (available on-line at http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/workingpapers/2007/ W88.pdf (accessed February 2013)). [47] V. Luu, S. Kim, T. Huynh, Improving project management performance of large contractors using benchmarking approach, Int. J. Proj. Manag. 26 (7) (2008) 758–769. [48] M. Marzouk, M. Hisham, S. Ismail, M. Youssef, O. Seif, On the use of Building Information Modeling in infrastructure bridges, available on-line at http://itc.scix.net/ data/works/att/w78-2010-135.pdf2010(accessed February 2013). [49] G. Mayo, B. Giel, R. Issa, BIMuse and requirements among building owners, Comput. Civ. Eng. (June 2012) 349–356. [50] McGraw Hill, The business value of BIM: getting building information modeling to the bottom line, available online at http://www.bim.construction.com/research/ 2009(accessed February 2013). [51] N. Nawari, BIM standard in off-site construction, J. Archit. Eng. 18 (2) (2012) 107–113. [52] A. Oluwole, A preliminary review on the legal implications of BIM and model ownership, J. Inf. Technol. Constr. (ITcon) 16 (2011) 687–696(available online at http:// www.itcon.org/2011/40 (accessed January 2013)). [53] S. Race, BIM Demystified, 1st ed. RIBA Publishing, UK, London, 2012. [54] R. Sebastian, Breaking through business and legal barriers of open collaborative processes based on Building Information Modelling (BIM), Proceedings ofW113 — Special Track, 18th CIB World Building Congress, May 2010 Salford, United Kingdom, 2010, (available on-line at http://www.lawlectures.co.uk/w113/ documents/wbc2010-proceedings.pdf#page=172 (accessed February 2013)). [55] B. Succar, Building information modelling framework: a research and delivery foundation for industry stakeholders, Autom. Constr. 18 (3) (2009) 357–375. [56] P. Tang, D. Huber, B. Akinci, R. Lipman, A. Lytle, Automatic reconstruction of as-built building information models from laser-scanned point clouds: a review of related techniques, Autom. Constr. 19 (7) (2010) 829–843. [57] D. Thompson, R. Miner, Building Information Modeling — BIM: contractual risks are changing with technology, available online at http://aepronet.infinityit.com/Guest% 20Essays/GE%20-%202006_09%20-%20Building%20Information%20Modeling. pdf2010(accessed January 2013). [58] K. Udom, Building Information Modelling, Available online at http://www.thenbs. com/topics/bim/articles/bimMappingOutTheLegalIssues.asp2012(accessed January 2013). [59] R. Vanlande, C. Nicolle, C. Cruz, IFC and building lifecycle management, Autom. Constr. 18 (1) (2008) 70–78. [60] H. Yan, P. Damian, Benefits and barriers of Building Information Modelling, available online at http://homepages.lboro.ac.uk/cvpd2/PDFs/294_Benefits%20and%20Barriers% 20of%20Building%20Information%20Modelling.pdf2008(accessed January 2013). [61] J. Yuan, Y. Zeng, M. Skibniewski, Q. Li, Selection of performance objectives and key performance indicators in PPP projects to achieve value for money, Constr. Manag.Econ. 27 (3) (2009) 253–270.

PY - 2013/9/30

Y1 - 2013/9/30

N2 - Substantial impacts through BIM implementation may be achieved throughout all stages of the construction process. The paper measures BIM use throughout the project lifecycle, confirming BIM is most often used in the early stages with progressively less use in the latter stages. This research demonstrates via 92 responses from a sample of BIM users that collaboration aspects produce the highest positive impact. The process aspects are more important than the software technology. BIM necessitates investment in software and training however, smaller practices can afford it. Stakeholder financial benefits are ranked concluding that clients benefit most financially from BIM followed by Facilities Managers. Despite this, over 70% do not provide a 3D model and Cobie dataset at the conclusion of a project. Identification of Key Performance Indicators currently being used for BIM is provided and findings indicate a lack of industry expertise and training providing an opportunity for education providers.

AB - Substantial impacts through BIM implementation may be achieved throughout all stages of the construction process. The paper measures BIM use throughout the project lifecycle, confirming BIM is most often used in the early stages with progressively less use in the latter stages. This research demonstrates via 92 responses from a sample of BIM users that collaboration aspects produce the highest positive impact. The process aspects are more important than the software technology. BIM necessitates investment in software and training however, smaller practices can afford it. Stakeholder financial benefits are ranked concluding that clients benefit most financially from BIM followed by Facilities Managers. Despite this, over 70% do not provide a 3D model and Cobie dataset at the conclusion of a project. Identification of Key Performance Indicators currently being used for BIM is provided and findings indicate a lack of industry expertise and training providing an opportunity for education providers.

KW - Building Information Modelling

KW - BIM advantages

KW - BIM disadvantages

KW - BIM adoption

KW - Construction

KW - Project management

KW - Facilities Management

KW - Training

KW - Education

KW - Project life cycle

UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926580513001507

U2 - 10.1016/j.autcon.2013.09.001

DO - 10.1016/j.autcon.2013.09.001

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 145

EP - 151

ER -