Benefits of a worksite or home-based bench stepping intervention for sedentary middle-aged adults – a pilot study

Jacqueline L Mair, Colin A Boreham, Ditroilo Massimiliano, David McKeown, Madeline M Lowery, Brian Caulfield, Giuseppe De Vito

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    6 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of a low-volume, vigorousintensity bench stepping programme in sedentary middle-aged adults. Thirty-onehealthy but sedentary adults (12 men; 55–64 years) took part in the study. Participantsaccumulated up to 9 min per day of stepping exercise on three days perweek over the 4-week experimental period. Parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness,body composition and lower limb muscle strength were measured on threeoccasions: TS1 (baseline test), TS2 (following a 4-week control period) and TS3(following the 4-week intervention). Data were analysed using a repeated-measuresANOVA. Adherence to the programme was excellent (96%). Relative to the insignificant changes following the control period, parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly improved following training. No alterations in body composition or lower limb muscle strength were detected. These results show that less than 30 min per week of bench step exercise, accumulated in short bouts throughout the day, can improve parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness after only 4 weeks in previously sedentary middle-aged adults. Due to its low-cost, timeefficient and discrete aspects, stepping exercise may have important implications for public health initiatives that promote physical activity in a population who commonly report ‘lack of time’ as a barrier to physical activity.

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    Workplace
    Exercise
    Muscle Strength
    Body Composition
    Lower Extremity
    Public Health
    Costs and Cost Analysis
    Population
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Keywords

    • ageing
    • exercise
    • health
    • physical activity
    • stair climbing
    • worksite intervention

    Cite this

    Mair, Jacqueline L ; Boreham, Colin A ; Massimiliano, Ditroilo ; McKeown, David ; Lowery, Madeline M ; Caulfield, Brian ; De Vito, Giuseppe. / Benefits of a worksite or home-based bench stepping intervention for sedentary middle-aged adults – a pilot study. In: Benefits of a worksite or home-based bench stepping intervention for sedentary middle-aged adults – a pilot study. 2013 ; Vol. Clin P.
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    title = "Benefits of a worksite or home-based bench stepping intervention for sedentary middle-aged adults – a pilot study",
    abstract = "The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of a low-volume, vigorousintensity bench stepping programme in sedentary middle-aged adults. Thirty-onehealthy but sedentary adults (12 men; 55–64 years) took part in the study. Participantsaccumulated up to 9 min per day of stepping exercise on three days perweek over the 4-week experimental period. Parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness,body composition and lower limb muscle strength were measured on threeoccasions: TS1 (baseline test), TS2 (following a 4-week control period) and TS3(following the 4-week intervention). Data were analysed using a repeated-measuresANOVA. Adherence to the programme was excellent (96{\%}). Relative to the insignificant changes following the control period, parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly improved following training. No alterations in body composition or lower limb muscle strength were detected. These results show that less than 30 min per week of bench step exercise, accumulated in short bouts throughout the day, can improve parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness after only 4 weeks in previously sedentary middle-aged adults. Due to its low-cost, timeefficient and discrete aspects, stepping exercise may have important implications for public health initiatives that promote physical activity in a population who commonly report ‘lack of time’ as a barrier to physical activity.",
    keywords = "ageing, exercise, health, physical activity, stair climbing, worksite intervention",
    author = "Mair, {Jacqueline L} and Boreham, {Colin A} and Ditroilo Massimiliano and David McKeown and Lowery, {Madeline M} and Brian Caulfield and {De Vito}, Giuseppe",
    note = "Reference text: Adams J, White M. A systematic approach to the development and evaluation of an intervention promoting stair use. J Health Educ (2002); 61: 272–286. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS. 2011 compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc (2011); 43: 1575– 1581. Asikainen TM, Miilunpalo S, Oja P, Rinne M, Pasanen M, Vuori I. Walking trials in postmenopausal women: effect of one vs two daily bouts on aerobic fitness. Scand J Med Sci Sports (2002); 12: 99–105. Bassuk SS, Manson JE. Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. J Appl Physiol (2005); 99: 1193–1204. Booth ML, Bauman A, Owen N, Gore CJ. Physical activity preferences, preferred sources of assistance, and perceived barriers to increased activity among physically inactive Australians. Prev Med (1997); 26: 131– 137. Boreham CA, Wallace WF, Nevill A. Training effects of accumulated daily stair-climbing exercise in previously sedentary young women. Prev Med (2000); 30: 277–281. Boreham CA, Kennedy RA, Murphy MH, Tully M, Wallace WF, Young I. Training effects of short bouts of stair climbing on cardiorespiratory fitness, blood lipids, and homocysteine in sedentary young women. Br J Sports Med (2005); 39: 590–593. Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc (1982); 14: 377–381. Byberg L, Melhus H, Gedeborg R, Sundstrom J, Ahlbom A, Zethelius B, Berglund LG, Wolk A, Michaelsson K. Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 year follow-up of population based cohort. BMJ (2009); 338: b688. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences (1988). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (NJ). Department of Health, Physical Activity, Health Improvement and Protection. Start Active, Stay Active: A Report on Physical Activity from the Four Home Countries (2011). Chief Medical Officers, London. Dunn AL, Andersen RE, Jakicic JM. Lifestyle physical activity interventions. History, short- and long-term effects, and recommendations. Am J Prev Med (1998); 15: 398–412. Gaesser GA, Angadi SS. High-intensity interval training for health and fitness: can less be more? J Appl Physiol (2011); 111: 1540– 1541. Gormley SE, Swain DP, High R, Spina RJ, Dowling EA, Kotipalli US, Gandrakota R. Effect of intensity of aerobic training on VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc (2008); 40: 1336–1343. Greig CA, Young A, Skelton DA, Pippet E, Butler FM, Mahmud SM. Exercise studies with elderly volunteers. Age Ageing (1994); 23: 185–189. H€akkinen K, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, H€akkinen A, Valkeinen H, Alen M. Selective muscle hypertrophy, changes in EMG and force, and serum hormones during strength training in older women. J Appl Physiol (2001); 91: 569–580. Handley MA, Schillinger D, Shiboski S. Quasiexperimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations. J Am Board Family Med (2011); 24: 589–596. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation (2007); 116: 1081– 1093. Karvonen MJ, Kentala E, Mustala O. The effects of training on heart rate; a longitudinal study. Ann Med Exp Biol Fenn (1957); 35: 307–315. Kennedy RA, Boreham CA, Murphy MH, Young I, Mutrie N. Evaluating the effects of a low volume stairclimbing programme on measures of health-related fitness in sedentary office workers. J Sports Sci Med (2007); 6: 448–454. Kowal J, Fortier MS. Physical activity behavior change in middle-aged and older women: the role of barriers and of environmental characteristics. J Behav Med (2007); 30: 233– 242. Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS. Physical activity and stroke incidence: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Stroke (1998); 29: 2049– 2054. Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Associations of light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity with longevity. The Harvard Alumni Health Study. Am J Epidemiol (2000); 151: 293–299. Lee IM, Hsieh CC, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Exercise intensity and longevity in men. The Harvard Alumni Health Study. JAMA (1995); 273: 1179–1184. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology. Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (2001). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA. McAuley PA, Blair SN. Obesity paradoxes. J Sports Sci (2011); 29: 773–782. Morgan DW, Craib M. Physiological aspects of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc (1992); 24: 456–461. Mori Y, Ayabe M, Yahiro T, Tobina T, Akira K, Shindo M, Yamada T, Tanaka H. The effects of home-based bench step exercise on aerobic capacity, lower extremity power and static balance in older adults. Int J Sport Health Sci (2006); 4: 570–576. Murphy MH, Hardman AE. Training effects of short and long bouts of brisk walking in sedentary women. Med Sci Sports Exerc (1998); 30: 152–157. Murtagh EM, Boreham CA, Nevill A, Hare LG, Murphy MH. The effects of 60 minutes of brisk walking per week, accumulated in two different patterns, on cardiovascular risk. Prev Med (2005); 41: 92–97. Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med (2002); 346: 793–801. Noonan V, Dean E. Submaximal exercise testing: clinical application and interpretation. Phys Ther (2000); 80: 782–807. Ohta M, Hirao N, Mori Y, Takigami C, Eguchi M, Tanaka H, Ikeda M, Yamato H. Effects of bench step exercise on arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women: contribution of IGF-1 bioactivity and nitric oxide production. Growth Horm IGF Res (2012); 22: 36–41. Reeves ND, Spanjaard M, Mohagheghi AA, Baltzopoulos V, Maganaris CN. Older adults employ alternative strategies to operate within their maximum capabilities when ascending stairs. J Electromyogr Kinesiol (2009); 19: e57–e68. Salmon J, Owen N, Crawford D, Bauman A, Sallis JF. Physical activity and sedentary behavior: a population-based study of barriers, enjoyment, and preference. Health Psychol (2003); 22: 178–188. Sj€ostr€om M, Oja P, Hagstr€omer M, Smith BJ, Bauman A. Health-enhancing physical activity across European Union countries: the Eurobarometer study. J Public Health (2006); 14: 291–300. Studenski S, Duncan PW, Chandler J, Samsa G, Prescott B, Hogue C, Bearon LB. Predicting falls: the role of mobility and nonphysical factors. J Am Geriatr Soc (1994); 42: 297–302. Sykes K, Roberts A. The Chester step test–a simple yet effective tool for the prediction of aerobic capacity. Physiotherapy (2004); 90: 183–188. Townsend N, Bhatnagar P, Wickramasinghe K, Scarborough P, Foster C, Rayner M. Physical Activity Statistics 2012 (2012). British Heart Foundation, London. Twisk JWR. Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology. A Practical Guide (2003). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Verdijk LB, Van Loon L, Meijer K, Savelberg HH. One-repetition maximum strength test represents a valid means to assess leg strength in vivo in humans. J Sports Sci (2009); 27: 59–68. Wisl{\o}ff U, Nilsen TI, Dr{\o}yvold WB, M{\o}rkved S, Sl{\o}rdahl SA, Vatten LJ. A single weekly bout of exercise may reduce cardiovascular mortality: how little pain for cardiac gain? ‘The HUNT study, Norway’. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil (2006); 13: 798–804. World Health Organisation. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health (2010). WHO, Geneva.",
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    Benefits of a worksite or home-based bench stepping intervention for sedentary middle-aged adults – a pilot study. / Mair, Jacqueline L; Boreham, Colin A; Massimiliano, Ditroilo; McKeown, David; Lowery, Madeline M; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe.

    In: Benefits of a worksite or home-based bench stepping intervention for sedentary middle-aged adults – a pilot study, Vol. Clin P, 07.05.2013.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Benefits of a worksite or home-based bench stepping intervention for sedentary middle-aged adults – a pilot study

    AU - Mair, Jacqueline L

    AU - Boreham, Colin A

    AU - Massimiliano, Ditroilo

    AU - McKeown, David

    AU - Lowery, Madeline M

    AU - Caulfield, Brian

    AU - De Vito, Giuseppe

    N1 - Reference text: Adams J, White M. A systematic approach to the development and evaluation of an intervention promoting stair use. J Health Educ (2002); 61: 272–286. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS. 2011 compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc (2011); 43: 1575– 1581. Asikainen TM, Miilunpalo S, Oja P, Rinne M, Pasanen M, Vuori I. Walking trials in postmenopausal women: effect of one vs two daily bouts on aerobic fitness. Scand J Med Sci Sports (2002); 12: 99–105. Bassuk SS, Manson JE. Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. J Appl Physiol (2005); 99: 1193–1204. Booth ML, Bauman A, Owen N, Gore CJ. Physical activity preferences, preferred sources of assistance, and perceived barriers to increased activity among physically inactive Australians. Prev Med (1997); 26: 131– 137. Boreham CA, Wallace WF, Nevill A. Training effects of accumulated daily stair-climbing exercise in previously sedentary young women. Prev Med (2000); 30: 277–281. Boreham CA, Kennedy RA, Murphy MH, Tully M, Wallace WF, Young I. Training effects of short bouts of stair climbing on cardiorespiratory fitness, blood lipids, and homocysteine in sedentary young women. Br J Sports Med (2005); 39: 590–593. Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc (1982); 14: 377–381. Byberg L, Melhus H, Gedeborg R, Sundstrom J, Ahlbom A, Zethelius B, Berglund LG, Wolk A, Michaelsson K. Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 year follow-up of population based cohort. BMJ (2009); 338: b688. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences (1988). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (NJ). Department of Health, Physical Activity, Health Improvement and Protection. Start Active, Stay Active: A Report on Physical Activity from the Four Home Countries (2011). Chief Medical Officers, London. Dunn AL, Andersen RE, Jakicic JM. Lifestyle physical activity interventions. History, short- and long-term effects, and recommendations. Am J Prev Med (1998); 15: 398–412. Gaesser GA, Angadi SS. High-intensity interval training for health and fitness: can less be more? J Appl Physiol (2011); 111: 1540– 1541. Gormley SE, Swain DP, High R, Spina RJ, Dowling EA, Kotipalli US, Gandrakota R. Effect of intensity of aerobic training on VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc (2008); 40: 1336–1343. Greig CA, Young A, Skelton DA, Pippet E, Butler FM, Mahmud SM. Exercise studies with elderly volunteers. Age Ageing (1994); 23: 185–189. H€akkinen K, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, H€akkinen A, Valkeinen H, Alen M. Selective muscle hypertrophy, changes in EMG and force, and serum hormones during strength training in older women. J Appl Physiol (2001); 91: 569–580. Handley MA, Schillinger D, Shiboski S. Quasiexperimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations. J Am Board Family Med (2011); 24: 589–596. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation (2007); 116: 1081– 1093. Karvonen MJ, Kentala E, Mustala O. The effects of training on heart rate; a longitudinal study. Ann Med Exp Biol Fenn (1957); 35: 307–315. Kennedy RA, Boreham CA, Murphy MH, Young I, Mutrie N. Evaluating the effects of a low volume stairclimbing programme on measures of health-related fitness in sedentary office workers. J Sports Sci Med (2007); 6: 448–454. Kowal J, Fortier MS. Physical activity behavior change in middle-aged and older women: the role of barriers and of environmental characteristics. J Behav Med (2007); 30: 233– 242. Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS. Physical activity and stroke incidence: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Stroke (1998); 29: 2049– 2054. Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Associations of light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity with longevity. The Harvard Alumni Health Study. Am J Epidemiol (2000); 151: 293–299. Lee IM, Hsieh CC, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Exercise intensity and longevity in men. The Harvard Alumni Health Study. JAMA (1995); 273: 1179–1184. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology. Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (2001). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA. McAuley PA, Blair SN. Obesity paradoxes. J Sports Sci (2011); 29: 773–782. Morgan DW, Craib M. Physiological aspects of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc (1992); 24: 456–461. Mori Y, Ayabe M, Yahiro T, Tobina T, Akira K, Shindo M, Yamada T, Tanaka H. The effects of home-based bench step exercise on aerobic capacity, lower extremity power and static balance in older adults. Int J Sport Health Sci (2006); 4: 570–576. Murphy MH, Hardman AE. Training effects of short and long bouts of brisk walking in sedentary women. Med Sci Sports Exerc (1998); 30: 152–157. Murtagh EM, Boreham CA, Nevill A, Hare LG, Murphy MH. The effects of 60 minutes of brisk walking per week, accumulated in two different patterns, on cardiovascular risk. Prev Med (2005); 41: 92–97. Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med (2002); 346: 793–801. Noonan V, Dean E. Submaximal exercise testing: clinical application and interpretation. Phys Ther (2000); 80: 782–807. Ohta M, Hirao N, Mori Y, Takigami C, Eguchi M, Tanaka H, Ikeda M, Yamato H. Effects of bench step exercise on arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women: contribution of IGF-1 bioactivity and nitric oxide production. Growth Horm IGF Res (2012); 22: 36–41. Reeves ND, Spanjaard M, Mohagheghi AA, Baltzopoulos V, Maganaris CN. Older adults employ alternative strategies to operate within their maximum capabilities when ascending stairs. J Electromyogr Kinesiol (2009); 19: e57–e68. Salmon J, Owen N, Crawford D, Bauman A, Sallis JF. Physical activity and sedentary behavior: a population-based study of barriers, enjoyment, and preference. Health Psychol (2003); 22: 178–188. Sj€ostr€om M, Oja P, Hagstr€omer M, Smith BJ, Bauman A. Health-enhancing physical activity across European Union countries: the Eurobarometer study. J Public Health (2006); 14: 291–300. Studenski S, Duncan PW, Chandler J, Samsa G, Prescott B, Hogue C, Bearon LB. Predicting falls: the role of mobility and nonphysical factors. J Am Geriatr Soc (1994); 42: 297–302. Sykes K, Roberts A. The Chester step test–a simple yet effective tool for the prediction of aerobic capacity. Physiotherapy (2004); 90: 183–188. Townsend N, Bhatnagar P, Wickramasinghe K, Scarborough P, Foster C, Rayner M. Physical Activity Statistics 2012 (2012). British Heart Foundation, London. Twisk JWR. Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology. A Practical Guide (2003). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Verdijk LB, Van Loon L, Meijer K, Savelberg HH. One-repetition maximum strength test represents a valid means to assess leg strength in vivo in humans. J Sports Sci (2009); 27: 59–68. Wisløff U, Nilsen TI, Drøyvold WB, Mørkved S, Slørdahl SA, Vatten LJ. A single weekly bout of exercise may reduce cardiovascular mortality: how little pain for cardiac gain? ‘The HUNT study, Norway’. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil (2006); 13: 798–804. World Health Organisation. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health (2010). WHO, Geneva.

    PY - 2013/5/7

    Y1 - 2013/5/7

    N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of a low-volume, vigorousintensity bench stepping programme in sedentary middle-aged adults. Thirty-onehealthy but sedentary adults (12 men; 55–64 years) took part in the study. Participantsaccumulated up to 9 min per day of stepping exercise on three days perweek over the 4-week experimental period. Parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness,body composition and lower limb muscle strength were measured on threeoccasions: TS1 (baseline test), TS2 (following a 4-week control period) and TS3(following the 4-week intervention). Data were analysed using a repeated-measuresANOVA. Adherence to the programme was excellent (96%). Relative to the insignificant changes following the control period, parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly improved following training. No alterations in body composition or lower limb muscle strength were detected. These results show that less than 30 min per week of bench step exercise, accumulated in short bouts throughout the day, can improve parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness after only 4 weeks in previously sedentary middle-aged adults. Due to its low-cost, timeefficient and discrete aspects, stepping exercise may have important implications for public health initiatives that promote physical activity in a population who commonly report ‘lack of time’ as a barrier to physical activity.

    AB - The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of a low-volume, vigorousintensity bench stepping programme in sedentary middle-aged adults. Thirty-onehealthy but sedentary adults (12 men; 55–64 years) took part in the study. Participantsaccumulated up to 9 min per day of stepping exercise on three days perweek over the 4-week experimental period. Parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness,body composition and lower limb muscle strength were measured on threeoccasions: TS1 (baseline test), TS2 (following a 4-week control period) and TS3(following the 4-week intervention). Data were analysed using a repeated-measuresANOVA. Adherence to the programme was excellent (96%). Relative to the insignificant changes following the control period, parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly improved following training. No alterations in body composition or lower limb muscle strength were detected. These results show that less than 30 min per week of bench step exercise, accumulated in short bouts throughout the day, can improve parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness after only 4 weeks in previously sedentary middle-aged adults. Due to its low-cost, timeefficient and discrete aspects, stepping exercise may have important implications for public health initiatives that promote physical activity in a population who commonly report ‘lack of time’ as a barrier to physical activity.

    KW - ageing

    KW - exercise

    KW - health

    KW - physical activity

    KW - stair climbing

    KW - worksite intervention

    U2 - 10.1111/cpf.12056

    DO - 10.1111/cpf.12056

    M3 - Article

    VL - Clin P

    JO - Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

    T2 - Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

    JF - Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

    SN - 1475-0961

    ER -