Bench marks and flush brackets in Keswick - a legacy of the Ordnance Survey

Peter Wilson, Alan Smith

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The article highlights the presence and absence of Ordnance Survey (OS) bench marks (of the crow’s foot, bolt and rivet types) and flush brackets in Keswick. Some bench marks date to the 1st (Primary) Geodetic Levelling of 1840-60, while others are late-19th and 20th century indicators of OS activity. Several of the early bench marks can no longer be found and are presumed to have been destroyed as a consequence of re-developments. Four flush brackets were fixed to buildings, probably early in the period 1935-62 as part of the re-triangulation of Great Britain; one of these is now lost. The bench marks and flush brackets are no longer maintained by the OS and have no legal protection other than through that accorded to the structure on which they exist. Their significance as heritage assets related to the mapping of Britain is not in doubt and their continuing loss is lamentable.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)137-146
    Number of pages10
    JournalTransactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society
    Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Nov 2022


    • Ordnance Survey
    • Bench marks
    • Flush brackets
    • Keswick


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