Battling with Lanchester's equations in the classroom

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A discrete time version of Lanchester’s ‘aimed fire’ model for combat is considered. The resulting equations are treated as a model for repeated battles and the effect of rearmament between battles is investigated. The usefulness of considering the solution of the model in the phase-plane is emphasized and a number of possible classroom extension exercises are included.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology
Early online date25 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished online - 25 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Lanchester’s equations
  • discrete time models
  • warfare
  • Education
  • Mathematics (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Mathematics
  • discrete-time models


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