Barriers to technology integration in the A-level history classroom in Northern Ireland

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Technology has the potential to enhance learning; however, generic technocentric strategies in schools have exacerbated barriers to technology integration in the classroom. Teachers are key to successful technology integration in schools. Factors such as subject culture and pedagogy will affect teachers’ willingness and ability to adopt technology in the classroom, yet subject-specific studies tend to focus on STEM subjects at the expense of the humanities. This mixed-methods study investigates technology use by teachers and pupils in the A-level history classroom in Northern Ireland, through the lens of Ertmer, P. 1999. “Addressing First- and Second-Order Barriers to Change: Strategies for Technology Integration.” Educational Technology Research and Development 47 (4): 47–61 classification of barriers. A number of impediments to effective technology use in the classroom were identified and strategies to minimise these barriers are recommended.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIrish Educational Studies
Early online date25 May 2023
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 25 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Barriers
  • technology integration
  • teachers
  • pupils
  • schools
  • history


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