This chapter describes the behaviour that protects wild fish from predators, the external stimuli that elicit such behaviour, how it is affected by nutrient status and its link with stress physiology. The way antipredator behaviour develops is considered, including how inherited differences and experience influence this process, as are costs of showing effective antipredator behaviour and how these are traded off against its obvious benefits. Although cultured fish are protected against predation, they may still experience encounters with predators and much husbandry practice may be perceived by farmed fish as a potential threat. The problems for production, welfare and the environment caused by antipredator responses in cultured fish are discussed, as are problems arising from the fact that the behaviour of released fish may deviate from that shown by fish reared in nature. Potential solutions to such problems are reviewed, based on selecting appropriate fish for culture and on using husbandry practices that reduce the incidence of antipredator responses and, where fish are cultured for release, that mitigate the effects of domestication and captive rearing. Finally, some ways in which fish farmers can make use of the natural antipredator responses of their fish to improve the effectiveness of farming operations are discussed.
|Title of host publication||Aquaculture and Behavior|
|Editors||Felicity Huningford, Malcolm Jobling, Sunil Kadri|
|Publisher||John Wiley & Sons, Inc.|
|Pages||220 - 247|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 16 Jan 2012|