Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males

Rachel Kathryn Roy, K. Casson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39% of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17% of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness.
LanguageEnglish
Pages253-261
JournalAmerican Journal of Men's Health
Volume11
Issue number2
Early online date19 Sep 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

Self-Examination
Testicular Neoplasms
Northern Ireland
Age Groups
Health
Health Promotion
Education
Incidence
Surveys and Questionnaires
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • testicular cancer
  • testicular self-exam
  • health promotion and disease prevention
  • men's health programs

Cite this

@article{436d77082b324fa28bc9ad894e696135,
title = "Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males",
abstract = "Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39{\%} of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17{\%} of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness.",
keywords = "testicular cancer, testicular self-exam, health promotion and disease prevention, men's health programs",
author = "Roy, {Rachel Kathryn} and K. Casson",
note = "Reference text: Berry, D. (2007). Health communication: Theory and practice.London, England: Open University Press. Brewer, G., Roy, M., & Watters, J. (2010). Testicular selfexaminationin an adult community sample. American Journal of Men’s Health, 5, 57-64. Buckley, J., & Tuama, S. {\'O}. (2010). ‘I send the wife to thedoctor’ – Men’s behaviour as health consumers. InternationalJournal of Consumer Studies, 34(5), 587-595. Cancer Research UK. (2011). Types of cancer: Testicular cancer. Retrieved from http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/print/{\%}20?files=CRUKMIG_100019826,CRU KMIG_100019828,CRUKMIG_100019830,CRUKMIG_100019829,CRUKMIG_100019827,CRUKMIG_100019831 City of Toronto. (2006). Involve Youth2: A guide to meaningful youth engagement. Retrieved from http://www.toronto.ca/involveyouth/pdf/youth2inal.pdf Corcoran, N. (2007). Communicating health: Strategies forhealth promotion. London, England: Sage. Cronholm, P. F., Mao, J. J., Nguyen, G. T., & Paris, R. T. (2009).A dilemma in male engagement in preventive services:Adolescent males’ knowledge and attitudes toward testicular cancer and testicular self-exam. American Journal of Men’s Health, 3, 134-140. Daley, C. M. (2007). College men’s knowledge, attitudes, andbeliefs about testicular cancer. American Journal of Men’sHealth, 1, 173-182. De Visser, R. O., Smith, J. A., & McDonnell, E. J. (2009).“That’s not masculine”: Masculine capital and health-relatedbehaviour. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 1047-1058. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. (2006). Regional cancer framework: A cancer control programme for Northern Ireland. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. (2010). Service framework for cancer prevention, treatment and care. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Author. Evans, R. E. C., Simon, A. E., & Wardle, J. (2010). Public perceptions of the harms and benefits of testicular cancer education: A qualitative study. Cancer Epidemiology, 34, 212-219. Garner, M. J., Turner, M. C., Ghadirian, P., & Krewski, D.(2005). Epidemiology of testicular cancer: An overview. International Journal of Cancer, 116, 331-339. Gosling, S. D., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., & John, O. P. (2004).Should we trust Web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about Internet questionnaires. American Psychologist, 59, 93-104. Handy, P., & Sankar, N. K. (2008). Testicular self examination: Knowledge of men attending a large genito urinary medicine clinic. Health Education Journal, 67, 9-15. Huyghe, E., Muller, A., Mieusset, R., Bujan, L., Bachaud, J-M., Chevreau, C., . . . Thonneau, P. (2007). Impact of diagnostic delay in testis cancer: Results of a large population-based study. European Urology, 52, 1710-1716. Kaplowitz, M. D., Hadlock, T. D., & Levine, R. (2004). A comparison of web and mail survey response rates. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68, 94-101. Lechner, L., Oenema, A., & de Noojier, J. (2002). Testicular self-examination (TSE) among Dutch young men aged 15–19: Determinants of the intention to practice TSE. Health Education Research, 17, 73-84. London, J. K., Zimmerman, K., & Erbstein, N. (2003). Youthled research and evaluation: Tools for youth, organizational, and community development. New Directions for Evaluation, 2003(98), 33-45. Mahalik, J. R., Levi-Minzi, M., & Walker, G. (2007). Masculinity and health behaviours in Australian men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8, 240-249. McCall, D., & Shannon, M. (1999). Youth led health promotion,youth engagement and youth participation: A research review (Prepared for Tobacco Control Unit, HealthCanada). Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.622.4226&rep=rep1&type=pdf McClenahan, C., Shevlin, M., Adamson, G., Bennett, C., & O’Neill, B. (2007). Testicular self-examination: A test of the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior. Health Education Research, 22, 272-284. McCullagh, J., Lewis, G., & Warlow, C. (2005). Promoting awareness and practice of testicular self-examination. Nursing Standard, 19, 41-49. McGilligan, C., McClenahan, C., & Adamson, G. (2009). Attitudes and intentions to performing testicular self examination: Utilizing an extended theory of planned behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 404-406. Michos, A., Xue, F., & Michels, K. B. (2007). Birth weight and the risk of testicular cancer: A meta-analysis. InternationalJournal of Cancer, 121, 1123-1131. Millar, M. M., & Dillman, D. A. (2011). Improving response toweb and mixed-mode surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly 75, 249-269. Movember Canada. (2013). About Movember. Retrieved fromhttp://ca.movember.com/about National Cancer Institute. (2005). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health).Retrieved from http://www.sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Theory-at-aGlance-A-Guide-For-Health-Promotion-Practice.pdf National Cancer Institute. (2016). Testicular cancer screening(PDQ{\circledR})–health professional version: Incidence and mortality(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health). Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/types/testicular/hp/testicular-screeningpdq#link/_86_toc National Health Service. (2014). Testicular cancer: Causes.Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cancer-ofthe-testicle/Pages/Causes.aspx Northern Ireland Cancer Registry. (2013a). Cancer data: Testis. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Author. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry. (2013b). Incidence, Prevalence & Survival statistics: 1993-2013. Retrieved from http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/official-statistics/BySite/Testis/ Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. (2010). Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure 2010. Retrieved from http://www.nisra.gov.uk/deprivation/ nimdm_2010.htm Nutbeam, D., & Harris, E. (2004). Theory in a nutshell: A practical guide to health promotion theories (2nd ed.). NorthRyde, New South Wales, Australia: McGraw-Hill. O’Brien, R. K., Hunt, K., & Hart, G. (2005). “It’s cave manstuff, but that is to a certain extent how guys still operate”:Men’s accounts of masculinity and help seeking. SocialScience & Medicine, 61, 503-516. Pettersson, A., Richiardi, L., Nordenskjold, A., Kaijser, M., &Akre, O. (2007). Age at surgery for undescended testis andrisk of testicular cancer. New England Journal of Medicine,356, 1835-1841. Rew, L., McDougall, G., Riesch, L., & Parker, C. (2005).Development of the self-efficacy for testicular selfexamination scale. Journal of Men’s Health & Gender,2, 59-63. Richardson, N., & Carroll, P. C. (2009). Getting men’s health onto a policy agenda: Charting the development of a National Men’s Health Policy in Ireland. Journal of Men’s Health, 6, 105-113. Richiardi, L., Pettersson, A., & Akre, O. (2007). Genetic and environmental risk factors for testicular cancer. International Journal of Andrology, 30, 230-241. Singleton, A. (2008). “It’s because of the invincibilitything”: Young men, masculinity, and testicular cancer. International Journal of Men’s Health, 7, 40-58. SurveyMonkey.com. (2011). Privacy policy. Retrieved fromhttp://www.surveymonkey.com/privacypolicy.aspx Umeh, K., & Chadwick, R. (2010). Early detection of testicular cancer: Revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self examination among young asymptomatic males. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 151-160. doi:10.1007/s10865-010-9262-z Vadaparampil, S. T., Moser, R. P., Loud, J., Peters, J. A.,Greene, M. H., & Korde, L. (2009). Factors associated with testicular self-examination among unaffected men from multiple-case testicular cancer families. Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice, 7(1), 11. Vogel, D. L., Heimerdinger-Edwards, S. R., Hammer, J. H.,& Hubbard, A. (2011). “Boys don’t cry”: Examination of the links between endorsement of masculine norms, self stigma, and help-seeking attitudes for men from diverse backgrounds. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58,368-382. doi:10.1037/a0023688 Ward, K. D., Vander Weg, M. W., Read, M. C., Sell, M. A.,& Beech, B. M. (2005). Testicular cancer awareness and self-examination among adolescent males in a community-based youth organization. Preventive Medicine, 41,386-398. Wardle, J., Steptoe, A., Burckhardt, R., Vogele, C., Vila, J.,& Zarczynski, Z. (1994) Testicular self-examination: Attitudes and practices among young men in Europe. Preventive Medicine, 23(2), 206-210. White, A., & Witty, K. (2009). Men’s under use of health services: Finding alternative approaches. Journal of Men’s Health, 6, 95-97. World Health Organization. (2016a). Gender, equity and human rights. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gender-equityrights/understanding/gender-definition/en/World Health Organization. (2016b). Health impact assessment: Determinants of health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en",
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Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males. / Roy, Rachel Kathryn; Casson, K.

In: American Journal of Men's Health, Vol. 11, No. 2, 01.03.2017, p. 253-261.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males

AU - Roy, Rachel Kathryn

AU - Casson, K.

N1 - Reference text: Berry, D. (2007). Health communication: Theory and practice.London, England: Open University Press. Brewer, G., Roy, M., & Watters, J. (2010). Testicular selfexaminationin an adult community sample. American Journal of Men’s Health, 5, 57-64. Buckley, J., & Tuama, S. Ó. (2010). ‘I send the wife to thedoctor’ – Men’s behaviour as health consumers. InternationalJournal of Consumer Studies, 34(5), 587-595. Cancer Research UK. (2011). Types of cancer: Testicular cancer. Retrieved from http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/print/%20?files=CRUKMIG_100019826,CRU KMIG_100019828,CRUKMIG_100019830,CRUKMIG_100019829,CRUKMIG_100019827,CRUKMIG_100019831 City of Toronto. (2006). Involve Youth2: A guide to meaningful youth engagement. Retrieved from http://www.toronto.ca/involveyouth/pdf/youth2inal.pdf Corcoran, N. (2007). Communicating health: Strategies forhealth promotion. London, England: Sage. Cronholm, P. F., Mao, J. J., Nguyen, G. T., & Paris, R. T. (2009).A dilemma in male engagement in preventive services:Adolescent males’ knowledge and attitudes toward testicular cancer and testicular self-exam. American Journal of Men’s Health, 3, 134-140. Daley, C. M. (2007). College men’s knowledge, attitudes, andbeliefs about testicular cancer. American Journal of Men’sHealth, 1, 173-182. De Visser, R. O., Smith, J. A., & McDonnell, E. J. (2009).“That’s not masculine”: Masculine capital and health-relatedbehaviour. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 1047-1058. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. (2006). Regional cancer framework: A cancer control programme for Northern Ireland. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. (2010). Service framework for cancer prevention, treatment and care. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Author. Evans, R. E. C., Simon, A. E., & Wardle, J. (2010). Public perceptions of the harms and benefits of testicular cancer education: A qualitative study. Cancer Epidemiology, 34, 212-219. Garner, M. J., Turner, M. C., Ghadirian, P., & Krewski, D.(2005). Epidemiology of testicular cancer: An overview. International Journal of Cancer, 116, 331-339. Gosling, S. D., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., & John, O. P. (2004).Should we trust Web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about Internet questionnaires. American Psychologist, 59, 93-104. Handy, P., & Sankar, N. K. (2008). Testicular self examination: Knowledge of men attending a large genito urinary medicine clinic. Health Education Journal, 67, 9-15. Huyghe, E., Muller, A., Mieusset, R., Bujan, L., Bachaud, J-M., Chevreau, C., . . . Thonneau, P. (2007). Impact of diagnostic delay in testis cancer: Results of a large population-based study. European Urology, 52, 1710-1716. Kaplowitz, M. D., Hadlock, T. D., & Levine, R. (2004). A comparison of web and mail survey response rates. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68, 94-101. Lechner, L., Oenema, A., & de Noojier, J. (2002). Testicular self-examination (TSE) among Dutch young men aged 15–19: Determinants of the intention to practice TSE. Health Education Research, 17, 73-84. London, J. K., Zimmerman, K., & Erbstein, N. (2003). Youthled research and evaluation: Tools for youth, organizational, and community development. New Directions for Evaluation, 2003(98), 33-45. Mahalik, J. R., Levi-Minzi, M., & Walker, G. (2007). Masculinity and health behaviours in Australian men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8, 240-249. McCall, D., & Shannon, M. (1999). Youth led health promotion,youth engagement and youth participation: A research review (Prepared for Tobacco Control Unit, HealthCanada). Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.622.4226&rep=rep1&type=pdf McClenahan, C., Shevlin, M., Adamson, G., Bennett, C., & O’Neill, B. (2007). Testicular self-examination: A test of the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior. Health Education Research, 22, 272-284. McCullagh, J., Lewis, G., & Warlow, C. (2005). Promoting awareness and practice of testicular self-examination. Nursing Standard, 19, 41-49. McGilligan, C., McClenahan, C., & Adamson, G. (2009). Attitudes and intentions to performing testicular self examination: Utilizing an extended theory of planned behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 404-406. Michos, A., Xue, F., & Michels, K. B. (2007). Birth weight and the risk of testicular cancer: A meta-analysis. InternationalJournal of Cancer, 121, 1123-1131. Millar, M. M., & Dillman, D. A. (2011). Improving response toweb and mixed-mode surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly 75, 249-269. Movember Canada. (2013). About Movember. Retrieved fromhttp://ca.movember.com/about National Cancer Institute. (2005). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health).Retrieved from http://www.sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Theory-at-aGlance-A-Guide-For-Health-Promotion-Practice.pdf National Cancer Institute. (2016). Testicular cancer screening(PDQ®)–health professional version: Incidence and mortality(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health). Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/types/testicular/hp/testicular-screeningpdq#link/_86_toc National Health Service. (2014). Testicular cancer: Causes.Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cancer-ofthe-testicle/Pages/Causes.aspx Northern Ireland Cancer Registry. (2013a). Cancer data: Testis. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Author. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry. (2013b). Incidence, Prevalence & Survival statistics: 1993-2013. Retrieved from http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/official-statistics/BySite/Testis/ Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. (2010). Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure 2010. Retrieved from http://www.nisra.gov.uk/deprivation/ nimdm_2010.htm Nutbeam, D., & Harris, E. (2004). Theory in a nutshell: A practical guide to health promotion theories (2nd ed.). NorthRyde, New South Wales, Australia: McGraw-Hill. O’Brien, R. K., Hunt, K., & Hart, G. (2005). “It’s cave manstuff, but that is to a certain extent how guys still operate”:Men’s accounts of masculinity and help seeking. SocialScience & Medicine, 61, 503-516. Pettersson, A., Richiardi, L., Nordenskjold, A., Kaijser, M., &Akre, O. (2007). Age at surgery for undescended testis andrisk of testicular cancer. New England Journal of Medicine,356, 1835-1841. Rew, L., McDougall, G., Riesch, L., & Parker, C. (2005).Development of the self-efficacy for testicular selfexamination scale. Journal of Men’s Health & Gender,2, 59-63. Richardson, N., & Carroll, P. C. (2009). Getting men’s health onto a policy agenda: Charting the development of a National Men’s Health Policy in Ireland. Journal of Men’s Health, 6, 105-113. Richiardi, L., Pettersson, A., & Akre, O. (2007). Genetic and environmental risk factors for testicular cancer. International Journal of Andrology, 30, 230-241. Singleton, A. (2008). “It’s because of the invincibilitything”: Young men, masculinity, and testicular cancer. International Journal of Men’s Health, 7, 40-58. SurveyMonkey.com. (2011). Privacy policy. Retrieved fromhttp://www.surveymonkey.com/privacypolicy.aspx Umeh, K., & Chadwick, R. (2010). Early detection of testicular cancer: Revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self examination among young asymptomatic males. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 151-160. doi:10.1007/s10865-010-9262-z Vadaparampil, S. T., Moser, R. P., Loud, J., Peters, J. A.,Greene, M. H., & Korde, L. (2009). Factors associated with testicular self-examination among unaffected men from multiple-case testicular cancer families. Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice, 7(1), 11. Vogel, D. L., Heimerdinger-Edwards, S. R., Hammer, J. H.,& Hubbard, A. (2011). “Boys don’t cry”: Examination of the links between endorsement of masculine norms, self stigma, and help-seeking attitudes for men from diverse backgrounds. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58,368-382. doi:10.1037/a0023688 Ward, K. D., Vander Weg, M. W., Read, M. C., Sell, M. A.,& Beech, B. M. (2005). Testicular cancer awareness and self-examination among adolescent males in a community-based youth organization. Preventive Medicine, 41,386-398. Wardle, J., Steptoe, A., Burckhardt, R., Vogele, C., Vila, J.,& Zarczynski, Z. (1994) Testicular self-examination: Attitudes and practices among young men in Europe. Preventive Medicine, 23(2), 206-210. White, A., & Witty, K. (2009). Men’s under use of health services: Finding alternative approaches. Journal of Men’s Health, 6, 95-97. World Health Organization. (2016a). Gender, equity and human rights. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gender-equityrights/understanding/gender-definition/en/World Health Organization. (2016b). Health impact assessment: Determinants of health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en

PY - 2017/3/1

Y1 - 2017/3/1

N2 - Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39% of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17% of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness.

AB - Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39% of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17% of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness.

KW - testicular cancer

KW - testicular self-exam

KW - health promotion and disease prevention

KW - men's health programs

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DO - 10.1177/1557988316668131

M3 - Article

VL - 11

SP - 253

EP - 261

JO - American Journal of Men's Health

T2 - American Journal of Men's Health

JF - American Journal of Men's Health

SN - 1557-9883

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