In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of skin cancer worldwide. There has been a huge amount of research literature on skin cancer especially in the last 10–15 years. There is no doubt that this is in direct relation to the increases in prevalence of the disease on a worldwide basis. Australian and American research has led in the field and again it is probable that this has been due to the increase in rates of skin cancer in those countries. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the existing international literature in the area.