Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Are Pharmacists’ Roles and Associated Outcomes?

Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Merna AbouKhatwa, Mahmoud E. Elrggal, Inderpal Singh Dehele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


Globally, the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing. The treatment for ADHD is multifaceted and requires long-term care and support. Pharmacists are capable of assisting patients and their caretakers in achieving desired outcomes. This work discusses and summarizes pharmacists’ roles in ADHD care and their associated outcomes. Overall, pharmacists are positioned to educate on ADHD, optimize medications in a collaborative practice model, manage and monitor side effects, and provide remote and virtual pharmaceutical care. Pharmacists could directly contribute to ensuring medication safety and increasing awareness regarding the optimal use of ADHD medications. Patients with ADHD can benefit from pharmacist involvement in a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, initial screening and referral, the provision of clinical consultation and feedback, and the improvement of self-management and self-awareness of the illness. Pharmacists also play a significant role in therapeutic decision making regarding the initiation, intensification, and monitoring of ADHD treatment to ensure its effectiveness and quality of life improvement. Lastly, pharmacists could help identify more cost-effective treatment approaches for ADHD patients based on the clinical scenario that is encountered.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2754
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number3
Early online date3 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 3 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship for Research and Innovation of the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through project number IFP22UQU4320605DSR240.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • outcomes
  • pharmaceutical care
  • pharmacist
  • role


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