Athlete and non-athlete Intentions to Self-Manage Mental Health: Applying the Integrated Behaviour Change Model to the State of Mind Programme

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Abstract

University students are vulnerable to mental health issues, and stigma remains a barrier to engagement with mental health care services (O'Neill, Mc Lafferty, Ennis, Lapsley, Bjourson, Armour, Murphy, Bunting, & Murray, 2018). It has been argued that student athletes may be less likely than non-athletes to seek help (Donohue et al, 2018), partly due to a sport culture that celebrates mental toughness, winning at all costs, and not showing weakness (Bauman, 2016). To our knowledge, theory-based psychoeducational programmes that promote self-management are lacking for athletes (Breslin and Leavey, 2019). The present study is in response to the lack of theory-based interventions, with two aims: (1) to determine whether a mental health awareness and self-management psychoeducational programme called State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) could improve intentions to self-manage mental health for both athletes and non-athletes; and (2) to apply the Integrated Behaviour Change Model (IBCM) framework to determine what mechanisms inherent within IBCM contributed to self-management of mental health. Two hundred students (Mean age = 21.10 years, SD=3.73, male = 53%) took part, 146 received the SOMI intervention programme (101 athletes and 45 non-athletes), while 54 (38 athletes and 16 non-athletes) were an inactive control group. Baseline and post-intervention motivation and belief-based measures were collected via a self-report questionnaire. Two regression models subscribing to IBCM processes were specified. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed an increase in self-management intentions (p <.05), which was facilitated indirectly through the intervention’s direct changes in autonomous (β=.13, p<.05) and controlled motivation (β=.18, p<.05), and direct (β =.28, p <.05) and indirect (β=.14, p<0.05) changes in the attitude factor of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Model 1 (autonomous motivation) and 2 (controlled motivation) explained R2=.20 and R2=.23 of the variance predicting self-management intentions respectively. This is the first study to incorporate the IBCM into a mental health promotion intervention among student athletes. Lay Summary We wanted to determine whether the State of Mind Ireland Programme can improve intentions to self-manage mental health, and to explain any changes through the Integrated Behaviour Change Model. Those who received the programme showed an increase in intentions to self-manage their mental health, through improved autonomous and controlled motivation, and attitudes towards self-managing mental health. The programme can be integrated into athlete and non-athlete service provision as a prevention method.
LanguageEnglish
JournalJournal of Applied Sport Psychology
Early online date20 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Jun 2019

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Athletes
Mental Health
Self Care
Motivation
Ireland
Students
Control Groups
Mental Health Services
Health Promotion
Self Report
Sports
Delivery of Health Care
Costs and Cost Analysis

Cite this

@article{c75227a3512a4106b0b48980cec532ad,
title = "Athlete and non-athlete Intentions to Self-Manage Mental Health: Applying the Integrated Behaviour Change Model to the State of Mind Programme",
abstract = "University students are vulnerable to mental health issues, and stigma remains a barrier to engagement with mental health care services (O'Neill, Mc Lafferty, Ennis, Lapsley, Bjourson, Armour, Murphy, Bunting, & Murray, 2018). It has been argued that student athletes may be less likely than non-athletes to seek help (Donohue et al, 2018), partly due to a sport culture that celebrates mental toughness, winning at all costs, and not showing weakness (Bauman, 2016). To our knowledge, theory-based psychoeducational programmes that promote self-management are lacking for athletes (Breslin and Leavey, 2019). The present study is in response to the lack of theory-based interventions, with two aims: (1) to determine whether a mental health awareness and self-management psychoeducational programme called State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) could improve intentions to self-manage mental health for both athletes and non-athletes; and (2) to apply the Integrated Behaviour Change Model (IBCM) framework to determine what mechanisms inherent within IBCM contributed to self-management of mental health. Two hundred students (Mean age = 21.10 years, SD=3.73, male = 53{\%}) took part, 146 received the SOMI intervention programme (101 athletes and 45 non-athletes), while 54 (38 athletes and 16 non-athletes) were an inactive control group. Baseline and post-intervention motivation and belief-based measures were collected via a self-report questionnaire. Two regression models subscribing to IBCM processes were specified. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed an increase in self-management intentions (p <.05), which was facilitated indirectly through the intervention’s direct changes in autonomous (β=.13, p<.05) and controlled motivation (β=.18, p<.05), and direct (β =.28, p <.05) and indirect (β=.14, p<0.05) changes in the attitude factor of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Model 1 (autonomous motivation) and 2 (controlled motivation) explained R2=.20 and R2=.23 of the variance predicting self-management intentions respectively. This is the first study to incorporate the IBCM into a mental health promotion intervention among student athletes. Lay Summary We wanted to determine whether the State of Mind Ireland Programme can improve intentions to self-manage mental health, and to explain any changes through the Integrated Behaviour Change Model. Those who received the programme showed an increase in intentions to self-manage their mental health, through improved autonomous and controlled motivation, and attitudes towards self-managing mental health. The programme can be integrated into athlete and non-athlete service provision as a prevention method.",
author = "Gavin Breslin and Stephen Shannon and Tandy Haughey and Nyasha Sarju and Drew Neill and Gerard Leavey and Martin Lawlor",
note = "Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. Barry, A. E., Howell, S. M., Riplinger, A., & Piazza-Gardner, A. K. (2015). Alcohol use among college athletes: do intercollegiate, club, or intramural student athletes drink differently?. Substance Use & Misuse, 50(3), 302-307. Biddle, S. J. Mutrie, N., & Gorely, T. (2015). Psychology of Physical Activity. Florence: Taylor and Francis.Bohon, L. M., Cotter, K. A., Kravitz, R. L., Cello Jr, P. C., Fernandez, Y., & Garcia, E. (2016). The Theory of Planned Behavior as it predicts potential intention to seek mental health services for depression among college students. Journal of American College Health, 64(8), 593-603. Bratland-Sanda, S., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2013). Eating disorders in athletes: overview of prevalence, risk factors and recommendations for prevention and treatment. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(5), 499-508. Breslin, G., & Leavey, G. (2019). Mental Health and Well-being Interventions in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice. Routledge, London, England. Breslin, G., Shannon, S., Ferguson, K, Devlin, S, Haughey, T., & Prentice, G. (2018). Predicting Athletes’ Mental Health Stigma Using the Theory of Reasoned Action Framework. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 13(1)1-23. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2017-0055. Breslin, G, Haughey, T, J, O'Brien, W, Caulfield, L, Robertson, A & Lawlor, M. (2018) Increasing Athlete Knowledge of Mental Health and Intentions to Seek Help: The State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) Pilot Program. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 12 (1), 39-56. Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS, EQS, and LISREL: Comparative approaches to testing for the factorial validity of a measuring instrument. International Journal of Testing, 1(1), 55-86. doi:10.1207/S15327574IJT0101_4 Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., & Thornicroft, G. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological Medicine, 45(1), 11-27. Conner, M., & Heywood-Everett, S. (1998). Addressing mental health problems with the theory of planned behaviour. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 3(1), 87-95. Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., & Petticrew, M. (2013). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(5), 587-592. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. Dray, J., Bowman, J., Campbell, E., Freund, M., Wolfenden, L., Hodder, R. K., McElwaine K., Tremain, D., Bartlem K., Bailey, J., & Small, T. (2017). Systematic review of universal resilience-focused interventions targeting child and adolescent mental health in the school setting. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1, 56(10), 813-24 Fledderus, M., Bohlmeijer, E. T., Smit, F., & Westerhof, G. J. (2010). Mental health promotion as a new goal in public mental health care: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention enhancing psychological flexibility. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2372-2372. Field, A. (2013). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics. Sage. Goodheart, C. D., Kazdin, A. E., & Sternberg, R. J. (2006). Evidence-based psychotherapy: Where practice and research meet. USA, American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11423-000 Gorczynski, P., Gibson, K., Thelwell, R., Papathomas, A., Harwood, C., & Kinnafick, F. (2019). The BASES Expert Statement on Mental Health Literacy in Elite Sport. The Sport and Exercise Scientist, 59. Gordon, E. J., Prohaska, T., Siminoff, L. A., Minich, P. J., & Sehgal, A. R. (2005). Can focusing on self-care reduce disparities in kidney transplant outcomes? American Journal of Kidney Disease, 45(5), 935. Gulliver, A., Christensen, H., & Griffiths, K. M. (2010). Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 10(1), 113. Hammond, T., Gialloreto, C., Kubas, H., & Davis IV, H. H. (2013). The prevalence of failure-based depression among elite athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 23(4), 273-277. Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Harris, J. (2006). From psychological need satisfaction to intentional behavior: Testing a motivational sequence in two behavioral contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(2), 131-148 Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2009). Integrating the theory of planned behaviour and self‐determination theory in health behaviour: a meta‐analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 275-302. Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2009). Assumptions in research in sport and exercise psychology. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(5), 511-519. Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2014). An integrated behavior change model for physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 42(2), 62-69. Howard, J. L., Gagn{\'e}, M., & Bureau, J. S. (2017). Testing a continuum structure of self-determined motivation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 143(12), 1346-1377. Huppert, F. A. (2009). Psychological well‐being: Evidence regarding its causes and consequences. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 1(2), 137-164. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: a Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. Huang, J. H., Jacobs, D. F., & Derevensky, J. L. (2010). Sexual risk-taking behaviors, gambling, and heavy drinking among US college athletes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(3), 706-713. Hunt, J., & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Mental health problems and help-seeking behavior among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1), 3-10. Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 349-366. Keyes, C. L. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 539. Keyes, C. L., Dhingra, S. S., & Simoes, E. J. (2010). Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2366-2371. King, K. A., Dowdall, M. P., & Wagner, D. I. (2010). Coaches’ attitudes and involvement in alcohol prevention among high school athletes. Journal of Community Health, 35(1), 68-75. Lo, K., Gupta, T., & Keating, J. L. (in press). 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year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1080/10413200.2019.1629547",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Applied Sport Psychology",
issn = "1041-3200",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Athlete and non-athlete Intentions to Self-Manage Mental Health: Applying the Integrated Behaviour Change Model to the State of Mind Programme

AU - Breslin, Gavin

AU - Shannon, Stephen

AU - Haughey, Tandy

AU - Sarju, Nyasha

AU - Neill, Drew

AU - Leavey, Gerard

AU - Lawlor, Martin

N1 - Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. Barry, A. E., Howell, S. M., Riplinger, A., & Piazza-Gardner, A. K. (2015). Alcohol use among college athletes: do intercollegiate, club, or intramural student athletes drink differently?. Substance Use & Misuse, 50(3), 302-307. Biddle, S. J. Mutrie, N., & Gorely, T. (2015). Psychology of Physical Activity. Florence: Taylor and Francis.Bohon, L. M., Cotter, K. A., Kravitz, R. L., Cello Jr, P. C., Fernandez, Y., & Garcia, E. (2016). The Theory of Planned Behavior as it predicts potential intention to seek mental health services for depression among college students. Journal of American College Health, 64(8), 593-603. Bratland-Sanda, S., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2013). Eating disorders in athletes: overview of prevalence, risk factors and recommendations for prevention and treatment. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(5), 499-508. Breslin, G., & Leavey, G. (2019). Mental Health and Well-being Interventions in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice. Routledge, London, England. Breslin, G., Shannon, S., Ferguson, K, Devlin, S, Haughey, T., & Prentice, G. (2018). Predicting Athletes’ Mental Health Stigma Using the Theory of Reasoned Action Framework. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 13(1)1-23. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2017-0055. Breslin, G, Haughey, T, J, O'Brien, W, Caulfield, L, Robertson, A & Lawlor, M. (2018) Increasing Athlete Knowledge of Mental Health and Intentions to Seek Help: The State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) Pilot Program. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 12 (1), 39-56. Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS, EQS, and LISREL: Comparative approaches to testing for the factorial validity of a measuring instrument. International Journal of Testing, 1(1), 55-86. doi:10.1207/S15327574IJT0101_4 Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., & Thornicroft, G. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological Medicine, 45(1), 11-27. Conner, M., & Heywood-Everett, S. (1998). Addressing mental health problems with the theory of planned behaviour. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 3(1), 87-95. Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., & Petticrew, M. (2013). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(5), 587-592. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. Dray, J., Bowman, J., Campbell, E., Freund, M., Wolfenden, L., Hodder, R. K., McElwaine K., Tremain, D., Bartlem K., Bailey, J., & Small, T. (2017). Systematic review of universal resilience-focused interventions targeting child and adolescent mental health in the school setting. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1, 56(10), 813-24 Fledderus, M., Bohlmeijer, E. T., Smit, F., & Westerhof, G. J. (2010). Mental health promotion as a new goal in public mental health care: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention enhancing psychological flexibility. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2372-2372. Field, A. (2013). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics. Sage. Goodheart, C. D., Kazdin, A. E., & Sternberg, R. J. (2006). Evidence-based psychotherapy: Where practice and research meet. USA, American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11423-000 Gorczynski, P., Gibson, K., Thelwell, R., Papathomas, A., Harwood, C., & Kinnafick, F. (2019). The BASES Expert Statement on Mental Health Literacy in Elite Sport. The Sport and Exercise Scientist, 59. Gordon, E. J., Prohaska, T., Siminoff, L. A., Minich, P. J., & Sehgal, A. R. (2005). Can focusing on self-care reduce disparities in kidney transplant outcomes? American Journal of Kidney Disease, 45(5), 935. Gulliver, A., Christensen, H., & Griffiths, K. M. (2010). Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 10(1), 113. Hammond, T., Gialloreto, C., Kubas, H., & Davis IV, H. H. (2013). The prevalence of failure-based depression among elite athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 23(4), 273-277. Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Harris, J. (2006). From psychological need satisfaction to intentional behavior: Testing a motivational sequence in two behavioral contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(2), 131-148 Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2009). Integrating the theory of planned behaviour and self‐determination theory in health behaviour: a meta‐analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 275-302. Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2009). Assumptions in research in sport and exercise psychology. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(5), 511-519. Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2014). An integrated behavior change model for physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 42(2), 62-69. Howard, J. L., Gagné, M., & Bureau, J. S. (2017). Testing a continuum structure of self-determined motivation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 143(12), 1346-1377. Huppert, F. A. (2009). Psychological well‐being: Evidence regarding its causes and consequences. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 1(2), 137-164. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: a Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. Huang, J. H., Jacobs, D. F., & Derevensky, J. L. (2010). Sexual risk-taking behaviors, gambling, and heavy drinking among US college athletes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(3), 706-713. Hunt, J., & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Mental health problems and help-seeking behavior among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1), 3-10. Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 349-366. Keyes, C. L. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 539. Keyes, C. L., Dhingra, S. S., & Simoes, E. J. (2010). Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2366-2371. King, K. A., Dowdall, M. P., & Wagner, D. I. (2010). Coaches’ attitudes and involvement in alcohol prevention among high school athletes. Journal of Community Health, 35(1), 68-75. Lo, K., Gupta, T., & Keating, J. L. (in press). Interventions to Promote Mental Health Literacy in University Students and Their Clinical Educators. A Systematic Review of Randomised Control Trials. Health Professions Education. DOI: 10.1037/ipp0000094 Macaskill, A. (2012). The mental health of university students in the United Kingdom. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 41(4), 426-441. McLafferty, M., Lapsley, C.R., Ennis, E., Armour, C., Murphy, S., Bunting, B.P., Bjourson, A.J., Murray, E.K. & O'Neill, S.M. (2017). Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland. PloS one, 12(12), p.e0188785. McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E., & Jenkins, R. (2009). Adult psychiatric morbidity in England, 2007: results of a household survey. The NHS Information Centre for health and Social Care. London. England. Michie, S., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Lawton, R., Parker, D., & Walker, A. (2005). Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach. BMJ Quality & Safety, 14(1), 26-33. Mo P, Mak W. (2009). Help-seeking for mental health problems among Chinese: the application and extension of the theory of planned behaviour. Social Psychiatry Epidemiology. 44, 675–684. National Health Service (2016). Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey: Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, England, 2014. Accessed from: https://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB21748. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018). Depression in adults: treatment and management Full guideline. London, United Kingdom. Ng, J. Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Duda, J. L., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(4), 325-340. Nixdorf, I., Frank, R., & Beckmann, J. (2016). 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PY - 2019/6/20

Y1 - 2019/6/20

N2 - University students are vulnerable to mental health issues, and stigma remains a barrier to engagement with mental health care services (O'Neill, Mc Lafferty, Ennis, Lapsley, Bjourson, Armour, Murphy, Bunting, & Murray, 2018). It has been argued that student athletes may be less likely than non-athletes to seek help (Donohue et al, 2018), partly due to a sport culture that celebrates mental toughness, winning at all costs, and not showing weakness (Bauman, 2016). To our knowledge, theory-based psychoeducational programmes that promote self-management are lacking for athletes (Breslin and Leavey, 2019). The present study is in response to the lack of theory-based interventions, with two aims: (1) to determine whether a mental health awareness and self-management psychoeducational programme called State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) could improve intentions to self-manage mental health for both athletes and non-athletes; and (2) to apply the Integrated Behaviour Change Model (IBCM) framework to determine what mechanisms inherent within IBCM contributed to self-management of mental health. Two hundred students (Mean age = 21.10 years, SD=3.73, male = 53%) took part, 146 received the SOMI intervention programme (101 athletes and 45 non-athletes), while 54 (38 athletes and 16 non-athletes) were an inactive control group. Baseline and post-intervention motivation and belief-based measures were collected via a self-report questionnaire. Two regression models subscribing to IBCM processes were specified. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed an increase in self-management intentions (p <.05), which was facilitated indirectly through the intervention’s direct changes in autonomous (β=.13, p<.05) and controlled motivation (β=.18, p<.05), and direct (β =.28, p <.05) and indirect (β=.14, p<0.05) changes in the attitude factor of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Model 1 (autonomous motivation) and 2 (controlled motivation) explained R2=.20 and R2=.23 of the variance predicting self-management intentions respectively. This is the first study to incorporate the IBCM into a mental health promotion intervention among student athletes. Lay Summary We wanted to determine whether the State of Mind Ireland Programme can improve intentions to self-manage mental health, and to explain any changes through the Integrated Behaviour Change Model. Those who received the programme showed an increase in intentions to self-manage their mental health, through improved autonomous and controlled motivation, and attitudes towards self-managing mental health. The programme can be integrated into athlete and non-athlete service provision as a prevention method.

AB - University students are vulnerable to mental health issues, and stigma remains a barrier to engagement with mental health care services (O'Neill, Mc Lafferty, Ennis, Lapsley, Bjourson, Armour, Murphy, Bunting, & Murray, 2018). It has been argued that student athletes may be less likely than non-athletes to seek help (Donohue et al, 2018), partly due to a sport culture that celebrates mental toughness, winning at all costs, and not showing weakness (Bauman, 2016). To our knowledge, theory-based psychoeducational programmes that promote self-management are lacking for athletes (Breslin and Leavey, 2019). The present study is in response to the lack of theory-based interventions, with two aims: (1) to determine whether a mental health awareness and self-management psychoeducational programme called State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) could improve intentions to self-manage mental health for both athletes and non-athletes; and (2) to apply the Integrated Behaviour Change Model (IBCM) framework to determine what mechanisms inherent within IBCM contributed to self-management of mental health. Two hundred students (Mean age = 21.10 years, SD=3.73, male = 53%) took part, 146 received the SOMI intervention programme (101 athletes and 45 non-athletes), while 54 (38 athletes and 16 non-athletes) were an inactive control group. Baseline and post-intervention motivation and belief-based measures were collected via a self-report questionnaire. Two regression models subscribing to IBCM processes were specified. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed an increase in self-management intentions (p <.05), which was facilitated indirectly through the intervention’s direct changes in autonomous (β=.13, p<.05) and controlled motivation (β=.18, p<.05), and direct (β =.28, p <.05) and indirect (β=.14, p<0.05) changes in the attitude factor of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Model 1 (autonomous motivation) and 2 (controlled motivation) explained R2=.20 and R2=.23 of the variance predicting self-management intentions respectively. This is the first study to incorporate the IBCM into a mental health promotion intervention among student athletes. Lay Summary We wanted to determine whether the State of Mind Ireland Programme can improve intentions to self-manage mental health, and to explain any changes through the Integrated Behaviour Change Model. Those who received the programme showed an increase in intentions to self-manage their mental health, through improved autonomous and controlled motivation, and attitudes towards self-managing mental health. The programme can be integrated into athlete and non-athlete service provision as a prevention method.

U2 - 10.1080/10413200.2019.1629547

DO - 10.1080/10413200.2019.1629547

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of Applied Sport Psychology

T2 - Journal of Applied Sport Psychology

JF - Journal of Applied Sport Psychology

SN - 1041-3200

ER -