Purpose: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are required for exercise-induced molecular adaptations; however, excessive exercise may cause cellular oxidative distress. We postulate that astaxanthin (ASX) can neutralize oxidative distress and stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in high-intensity exercise-trained mice. Methods: Six-week-old mice (n = 8/group) were treated with ASX (10 mg/kg BW) or placebo. Training groups participated in 30 min/day high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for 6 weeks. Gastrocnemius muscle was collected and assayed following the exercise training period. Results: Compared to the HIIT control mice, the ASX-treated HIIT mice reduced malonaldehyde levels and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and FOXO3a. Meanwhile, the genes NQO1 and GCLC, modulated by Nrf2, and SOD2, regulated by FOXO3a, and GPx4, were transcriptionally upregulated in the ASX-treated HIIT group. Meanwhile, the expression of energy sensors, AMPK, SIRT1, and SIRT3, increased in the ASX-treated HIIT group compared to the HIIT control group. Additionally, PGC-1α, regulated by AMPK and SIRT1, was upregulated in the ASX-treated HIIT group. Further, the increased PGC-1α stimulated the transcript of NRF1 and Tfam and mitochondrial proteins IDH2 and ATP50. Finally, the ASX-treated HIIT mice had upregulations in the transcript level of mitochondrial fusion factors, including Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1. However, the protein level of AMPK, SIRT1, and FOXO3a, and the transcript level of Nrf2, NQO1, PGC-1α, NRF1, Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1 decreased in the HIIT control group compared to the sedentary control group. Conclusion: Supplementation with ASX can reduce oxidative stress and promote antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis during strenuous HIIT exercise in mice.
|Journal||European Journal of Nutrition|
|Early online date||17 Jan 2023|
|Publication status||Published online - 17 Jan 2023|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was sponsored by the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2019A610347 & No. 2022J250).
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.
- Oxidative stress
- Mitochondrial biogenesis
- High-intensity interval training