Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: A comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses

Frederic D.L. Leusch, Stuart J. Khan, M. Monique Gagnon, Pam Quayle, Trang Trinh, Heather Coleman, Christopher Rawson, Heather F. Chapman, Palenque Blair, Helen Nice, Tarren Reitsema

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an “ecotoxicity toolbox” consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the in vitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the in vitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (in vitro) and effect (in vivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality.
LanguageEnglish
Pages420-431
JournalWater Research
Volume50
Early online date30 Oct 2013
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Oct 2013

Fingerprint

Water quality
Wastewater
chemical analysis
water quality
wastewater
Bioassay
Biomarkers
Chemical analysis
Wastewater treatment
bioassay
Wastewater reclamation
Pulse amplitude modulation
Photosynthesis
Monitoring
Hormones
Reverse osmosis
Cytotoxicity
Sewage
Pesticides
Surface waters

Keywords

  • Bioanalytical tools
  • EDC
  • LCMSMS
  • Mosquitofish
  • Vitellogenin
  • Water quality

Cite this

Leusch, Frederic D.L. ; Khan, Stuart J. ; Gagnon, M. Monique ; Quayle, Pam ; Trinh, Trang ; Coleman, Heather ; Rawson, Christopher ; Chapman, Heather F. ; Blair, Palenque ; Nice, Helen ; Reitsema, Tarren. / Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: A comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses. 2013 ; Vol. 50. pp. 420-431.
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abstract = "We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an “ecotoxicity toolbox” consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the in vitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the in vitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (in vitro) and effect (in vivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality.",
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Leusch, FDL, Khan, SJ, Gagnon, MM, Quayle, P, Trinh, T, Coleman, H, Rawson, C, Chapman, HF, Blair, P, Nice, H & Reitsema, T 2013, 'Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: A comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses', vol. 50, pp. 420-431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.10.056

Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: A comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses. / Leusch, Frederic D.L.; Khan, Stuart J.; Gagnon, M. Monique; Quayle, Pam; Trinh, Trang; Coleman, Heather; Rawson, Christopher; Chapman, Heather F.; Blair, Palenque; Nice, Helen; Reitsema, Tarren.

Vol. 50, 30.10.2013, p. 420-431.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: A comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses

AU - Leusch, Frederic D.L.

AU - Khan, Stuart J.

AU - Gagnon, M. Monique

AU - Quayle, Pam

AU - Trinh, Trang

AU - Coleman, Heather

AU - Rawson, Christopher

AU - Chapman, Heather F.

AU - Blair, Palenque

AU - Nice, Helen

AU - Reitsema, Tarren

PY - 2013/10/30

Y1 - 2013/10/30

N2 - We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an “ecotoxicity toolbox” consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the in vitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the in vitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (in vitro) and effect (in vivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality.

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KW - EDC

KW - LCMSMS

KW - Mosquitofish

KW - Vitellogenin

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