Assessment of the effectiveness of the guard ring in obtaining a uni-directional flow in an in situ water permeability test

K Yang, PAM Basheer, Y Bai, B.J. Magee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The non-destructive evaluation of the water permeability of concrete structures is a long standing challenge, principally due to the difficulty of achieving a uni-direction flow for computing the water permeability coefficient. The use of a guard ring (GR) was originally proposed for the in situ sorptivity test, but little information can be found for the water permeability test. In this study, the effect of a GR was carefully examined through the flow simulation, which was verified by carrying out experiments. It was observed that the GR can confine the flow near the surface, but cannot achieve a uni-directional flow across the whole depth of flow. To achieve a better performance, it is essential to consider the effects of the size of the inner seal and the GR and the significant interaction between these two. The analysis of the experimental data has indicated that the GR influences the flow for porous concretes, but there is no significant effect for dense concretes. Further investigation, validated using the flow-net theory, has shown a strong correlation between the water permeability coefficients obtained with the GR (K w-GR) and without it (K w-No GR), suggesting that one dimensional flow is not essential for interpreting data for site tests. Another practical issue was that more than 30 % of the tests with GR failed due to the difficulty of achieving a good seal between the inner and the outer chambers. Based on the work reported in this paper, a new water permeability test is proposed.
LanguageEnglish
Pages167-183
JournalMaterials and Structures
Volume48
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Water
Hydraulic conductivity
Seals
Concretes
Flow simulation
Concrete construction
Experiments
Direction compound

Keywords

  • On-site water permeability test
  • Guard ring
  • Steady rate of flow
  • Flow simulation

Cite this

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title = "Assessment of the effectiveness of the guard ring in obtaining a uni-directional flow in an in situ water permeability test",
abstract = "The non-destructive evaluation of the water permeability of concrete structures is a long standing challenge, principally due to the difficulty of achieving a uni-direction flow for computing the water permeability coefficient. The use of a guard ring (GR) was originally proposed for the in situ sorptivity test, but little information can be found for the water permeability test. In this study, the effect of a GR was carefully examined through the flow simulation, which was verified by carrying out experiments. It was observed that the GR can confine the flow near the surface, but cannot achieve a uni-directional flow across the whole depth of flow. To achieve a better performance, it is essential to consider the effects of the size of the inner seal and the GR and the significant interaction between these two. The analysis of the experimental data has indicated that the GR influences the flow for porous concretes, but there is no significant effect for dense concretes. Further investigation, validated using the flow-net theory, has shown a strong correlation between the water permeability coefficients obtained with the GR (K w-GR) and without it (K w-No GR), suggesting that one dimensional flow is not essential for interpreting data for site tests. Another practical issue was that more than 30 {\%} of the tests with GR failed due to the difficulty of achieving a good seal between the inner and the outer chambers. Based on the work reported in this paper, a new water permeability test is proposed.",
keywords = "On-site water permeability test, Guard ring, Steady rate of flow, Flow simulation",
author = "K Yang and PAM Basheer and Y Bai and B.J. Magee",
note = "Reference text: 1.Adams AE (1986) Development and application of the CLAM for measuring concrete permeability. PhD Thesis, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–328 2.A{\"i}tcin PC (1998) High performance concrete. Taylor and Francis, London » CrossRef 3.Arbaoui T (1988) Finite element calibration of the CLAM. MSc Thesis, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–103 4.Bamforth PB (1987) The relationship between permeability coefficients for concrete obtained using liquid and gas. Mag Concr Res 39(138):3–11 » CrossRef 5.Basheer PAM (1991) ‘CLAM’ permeability tests for assessing the durability of concrete. PhD Thesis, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–438 6.Basheer PAM (2001) Permeation analysis. In: Beaudoin JJ, Ramachandran VS (eds) Handbook of analytical techniques in concrete science and technology: principles, techniques and applications. William Andrew Publishing, Norwich, pp 658–727 » CrossRef 7.Basheer PAM, Nolan EA (2001) Near-surface moisture gradients and in situ permeation tests. Constr Build Mater 15:105–114 » CrossRef 8.BS1881-125 (1986) Methods for mixing and sampling fresh concrete in the laboratory. BSI, London, pp 1–10 9.BS-EN12390 (2000) Testing hardened concrete. Part 8: depth of penetration of water under pressure. BSI, London, pp 1–10 10.Cristensen BJ, Mason TO, Jennings JM (1996) Comparison of measured and calculated permeabilities for hardened cement pastes. Cem Concr Res 26:1325–1334 » CrossRef 11.Dhir RK, Hewlett PC, Chan YN (1989) Near surface characteristics of concrete intrinsic permeability. Mag Concr Res 41:87–97 » CrossRef 12.El-Dieb AE, Hooton RD (1995) Water permeability measurement of high performance concrete using a high pressure triaxial cell. Cem Concr Res 25:1199–1208 » CrossRef 13.Hall C (1989) Water sorptivity of mortars and concretes a review. Mag Concr Res 41:51–61 » CrossRef 14.Hearn N (1998) Self-sealing, autogenous healing and continued hydration: what is the difference. Mater Struct 31:563–567 » CrossRef 15.Hyde GW, Smith WJ (1889) Results of experiments made to determine the permeability of cements and cement mortars. J Frankl Inst 128:199–207 » CrossRef 16.Long AE (1985) Durability testing of porous material. UK Patent 17.Long AE, Henderson GD, Montgomery FR (2001) Why assess the properties of near-surface concrete. Constr Build Mater 15:65–79 » CrossRef 18.Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM (2006) Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials, 3rd edn. McGraw Hill, New York 19.Montgomery DC (1996) Design and analysis of experiments, 4th edn. Wiley, New York 20.Neville AM (1996) Properties of concrete, 4th edn. Wiley, New Delhi 21.Nolan E, Ali MA, Basheer PAM, Marsh BK (1997) Testing the effectiveness of commonly used site curing regimes. Mater Struct 30:53–60 » CrossRef 22.Parrott LJ, Hong CZ (1991) Some factors influencing air permeation measurements in cover concrete. Mater Struct 24:403–408 » CrossRef 23.Perry M, Hollis D (2003) The generation of monthly gridded datasets for a range of climatic variables over the United Kingdom. Met Office, Exeter 24.Price WF, Bamforth PB (1993) Initial surface absorption of concrete: examination of modified test apparatus for obtaining uniaxial absorption. Mag Concr Res 45:17–24 » CrossRef 25.Stanish KD, Hooton RD, Thomas MDA (2000) Testing the chloride penetration resistance of concrete: a literature review. FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R-00022 “Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete”. University of Toronto 26.Torrent RT (1992) A two-chamber vacuum cell for measuring the coefficient of permeability to air of the concrete cover on site. Mater Struct 25:358–365 » CrossRef 27.TR-31 (2008) Permeability testing of site concrete. Concrete Society, pp 1–90 28.Yang K, Basheer PAM, Long AE, Bai Y (2012) Assessment of air permeability of high performance concretes using a new in situ test. In: 3rd International conference on the durability of concrete structures, 17–19 Sep. Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–8",
year = "2015",
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language = "English",
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pages = "167--183",
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}

Assessment of the effectiveness of the guard ring in obtaining a uni-directional flow in an in situ water permeability test. / Yang, K; Basheer, PAM; Bai, Y; Magee, B.J.

In: Materials and Structures, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, 2015, p. 167-183.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment of the effectiveness of the guard ring in obtaining a uni-directional flow in an in situ water permeability test

AU - Yang, K

AU - Basheer, PAM

AU - Bai, Y

AU - Magee, B.J.

N1 - Reference text: 1.Adams AE (1986) Development and application of the CLAM for measuring concrete permeability. PhD Thesis, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–328 2.Aïtcin PC (1998) High performance concrete. Taylor and Francis, London » CrossRef 3.Arbaoui T (1988) Finite element calibration of the CLAM. MSc Thesis, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–103 4.Bamforth PB (1987) The relationship between permeability coefficients for concrete obtained using liquid and gas. Mag Concr Res 39(138):3–11 » CrossRef 5.Basheer PAM (1991) ‘CLAM’ permeability tests for assessing the durability of concrete. PhD Thesis, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–438 6.Basheer PAM (2001) Permeation analysis. In: Beaudoin JJ, Ramachandran VS (eds) Handbook of analytical techniques in concrete science and technology: principles, techniques and applications. William Andrew Publishing, Norwich, pp 658–727 » CrossRef 7.Basheer PAM, Nolan EA (2001) Near-surface moisture gradients and in situ permeation tests. Constr Build Mater 15:105–114 » CrossRef 8.BS1881-125 (1986) Methods for mixing and sampling fresh concrete in the laboratory. BSI, London, pp 1–10 9.BS-EN12390 (2000) Testing hardened concrete. Part 8: depth of penetration of water under pressure. BSI, London, pp 1–10 10.Cristensen BJ, Mason TO, Jennings JM (1996) Comparison of measured and calculated permeabilities for hardened cement pastes. Cem Concr Res 26:1325–1334 » CrossRef 11.Dhir RK, Hewlett PC, Chan YN (1989) Near surface characteristics of concrete intrinsic permeability. Mag Concr Res 41:87–97 » CrossRef 12.El-Dieb AE, Hooton RD (1995) Water permeability measurement of high performance concrete using a high pressure triaxial cell. Cem Concr Res 25:1199–1208 » CrossRef 13.Hall C (1989) Water sorptivity of mortars and concretes a review. Mag Concr Res 41:51–61 » CrossRef 14.Hearn N (1998) Self-sealing, autogenous healing and continued hydration: what is the difference. Mater Struct 31:563–567 » CrossRef 15.Hyde GW, Smith WJ (1889) Results of experiments made to determine the permeability of cements and cement mortars. J Frankl Inst 128:199–207 » CrossRef 16.Long AE (1985) Durability testing of porous material. UK Patent 17.Long AE, Henderson GD, Montgomery FR (2001) Why assess the properties of near-surface concrete. Constr Build Mater 15:65–79 » CrossRef 18.Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM (2006) Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials, 3rd edn. McGraw Hill, New York 19.Montgomery DC (1996) Design and analysis of experiments, 4th edn. Wiley, New York 20.Neville AM (1996) Properties of concrete, 4th edn. Wiley, New Delhi 21.Nolan E, Ali MA, Basheer PAM, Marsh BK (1997) Testing the effectiveness of commonly used site curing regimes. Mater Struct 30:53–60 » CrossRef 22.Parrott LJ, Hong CZ (1991) Some factors influencing air permeation measurements in cover concrete. Mater Struct 24:403–408 » CrossRef 23.Perry M, Hollis D (2003) The generation of monthly gridded datasets for a range of climatic variables over the United Kingdom. Met Office, Exeter 24.Price WF, Bamforth PB (1993) Initial surface absorption of concrete: examination of modified test apparatus for obtaining uniaxial absorption. Mag Concr Res 45:17–24 » CrossRef 25.Stanish KD, Hooton RD, Thomas MDA (2000) Testing the chloride penetration resistance of concrete: a literature review. FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R-00022 “Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete”. University of Toronto 26.Torrent RT (1992) A two-chamber vacuum cell for measuring the coefficient of permeability to air of the concrete cover on site. Mater Struct 25:358–365 » CrossRef 27.TR-31 (2008) Permeability testing of site concrete. Concrete Society, pp 1–90 28.Yang K, Basheer PAM, Long AE, Bai Y (2012) Assessment of air permeability of high performance concretes using a new in situ test. In: 3rd International conference on the durability of concrete structures, 17–19 Sep. Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, pp 1–8

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - The non-destructive evaluation of the water permeability of concrete structures is a long standing challenge, principally due to the difficulty of achieving a uni-direction flow for computing the water permeability coefficient. The use of a guard ring (GR) was originally proposed for the in situ sorptivity test, but little information can be found for the water permeability test. In this study, the effect of a GR was carefully examined through the flow simulation, which was verified by carrying out experiments. It was observed that the GR can confine the flow near the surface, but cannot achieve a uni-directional flow across the whole depth of flow. To achieve a better performance, it is essential to consider the effects of the size of the inner seal and the GR and the significant interaction between these two. The analysis of the experimental data has indicated that the GR influences the flow for porous concretes, but there is no significant effect for dense concretes. Further investigation, validated using the flow-net theory, has shown a strong correlation between the water permeability coefficients obtained with the GR (K w-GR) and without it (K w-No GR), suggesting that one dimensional flow is not essential for interpreting data for site tests. Another practical issue was that more than 30 % of the tests with GR failed due to the difficulty of achieving a good seal between the inner and the outer chambers. Based on the work reported in this paper, a new water permeability test is proposed.

AB - The non-destructive evaluation of the water permeability of concrete structures is a long standing challenge, principally due to the difficulty of achieving a uni-direction flow for computing the water permeability coefficient. The use of a guard ring (GR) was originally proposed for the in situ sorptivity test, but little information can be found for the water permeability test. In this study, the effect of a GR was carefully examined through the flow simulation, which was verified by carrying out experiments. It was observed that the GR can confine the flow near the surface, but cannot achieve a uni-directional flow across the whole depth of flow. To achieve a better performance, it is essential to consider the effects of the size of the inner seal and the GR and the significant interaction between these two. The analysis of the experimental data has indicated that the GR influences the flow for porous concretes, but there is no significant effect for dense concretes. Further investigation, validated using the flow-net theory, has shown a strong correlation between the water permeability coefficients obtained with the GR (K w-GR) and without it (K w-No GR), suggesting that one dimensional flow is not essential for interpreting data for site tests. Another practical issue was that more than 30 % of the tests with GR failed due to the difficulty of achieving a good seal between the inner and the outer chambers. Based on the work reported in this paper, a new water permeability test is proposed.

KW - On-site water permeability test

KW - Guard ring

KW - Steady rate of flow

KW - Flow simulation

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DO - 10.1617/s11527-013-0175-5

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VL - 48

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EP - 183

JO - Materials and Structures

T2 - Materials and Structures

JF - Materials and Structures

SN - 1359-5997

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ER -