Assessment of Academic Resilience and its associated factors among Pharmacy Students in Twelve Countries

Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Wan Nur Ain Asikin bt Wan Salam, Abrar K. Thabit, Naeem Mubarak, Merna Mahmoud AbouKhatwa, Diana Laila Ramatillah, AbdulMuminu Isah, Muna Barakat, Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili, Noha O. Mansour, Ahmed Fathelrahman, Mohammed Fathelrahman Adam, Safayat Jamil, Mohamed Baraka, Syed Arman Rabbani, Doaa H. Abdelaziz, Mahmoud E. Elrggal, Betul Okuyan, Hatice Kübra Elcioglu

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Objective Academic resilience, a critical determinant of academic achievement, is affected by various factors. There is a paucity of large-scale international assessments of academic resilience among pharmacy students. Therefore, this study aimed to assess academic resilience among pharmacy students in 12 countries and to evaluate factors associated with their academic resilience levels. Methods A cross-sectional online survey-based study was conducted among randomly selected pharmacy students in 12 countries: Egypt, Türkiye, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, Jordan, Nigeria, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and the United Arab Emirates. After pilot testing, the validated 30-item academic resilience scale (ARS) was used for the assessment. The data were collected between November 1, 2022 and April 15, 2023. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed, as appropriate. Results A total of 3950 were received from the 12 participating countries. The mean age was 21.68 ± 2.62 years. About two-thirds of the responses were from female participants and those studying for Bachelor of Pharmacy degrees. Overall, the findings show moderate academic resilience, which varied across countries. The median (IQR) of the total ARS-30 was 114 (103−124). Females exhibited lower negative affective and emotional response subscale levels than males. There were significant cross-country variations in the ARS-30 and all subscales. The highest overall levels were reported for Sudan, Pakistan, and Nigeria and the lowest were reported for Indonesia and Türkiye. Students in private universities tended to have higher overall ARS levels than public university students. Higher academic performance was significantly associated with ARS levels, whereas those with excellent performance exhibited the highest ARS levels. Students with exercise routines had higher ARS levels than those without exercise routines. Finally, students who were engaged in extracurricular activities had higher ARS levels than those who did not participate in these activities. Conclusion The study offers insights into the factors affecting academic resilience in pharmacy students across several countries. The findings could guide interventions and support activities to improve resilience and academic outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100693
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number5
Early online date2 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished online - 2 Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research and Innovation of the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through project number IFP22UQU4320605DSR246.


  • Academic resilience
  • Pharmacy
  • Students
  • Education
  • international
  • International


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