Assessing the Accuracy and Reliability of a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Headset versus a Goniometer for Measuring Cervical Range of Motion

Agni Paul, James Connolly, Joan Condell, Philip Gardiner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is one of the prevalent reasons for neck pain, stiffness and mobility issues. Neck pain is assessed by trained clinicians using a goniometer to measure the angular motion of the neck in three planes. The process requires understanding complex anatomy-associated movements to collect accurate results; further unnatural movement of the routine can result in poor compliance. Hence, there is a need for a low-cost, home-based portable measurement system that engages sufferers to measure changes in neck mobility between clinical visits. Virtual Reality (VR) systems have been used in the treatment of various mental health and physiological diseases. In this study, 25 participants were tested with a novel VR system to measure and record various neck rotations in real time. The current state-of-the-art measurement system for axSpA was used for accuracy and reliability comparisons. Results showed a strong positive correlation (r = .97-.99) between data recorded from the VR and the goniometer, for all activities. While further analyses are required, results indicate that the VR application is sufficiently accurate and reliable in measuring neck movement and can be further developed as a low-cost objective measurement device for neck rehabilitation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 34th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC)
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-3503-4057-0
ISBN (Print)979-8-3503-4058-7
Publication statusPublished online - 3 Jul 2023
Event34th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC 2023) - University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Duration: 13 Jun 202314 Jun 2023

Publication series

NameSignals and Systems Conference (ISSC), 2023 34th Irish
ISSN (Print)2688-1446
ISSN (Electronic)2688-1454


Conference34th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC 2023)
Abbreviated titleISSC 2023
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IEEE.


  • neck pain
  • ankylosing spondylitis
  • axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA)
  • arthritis
  • virtual reality (VR)
  • goniometer
  • inertial measurement unit (IMU)


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessing the Accuracy and Reliability of a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Headset versus a Goniometer for Measuring Cervical Range of Motion'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this