Artificial Intelligence in Surgical Training for Kidney Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Natali Rodriguez Peñaranda, Ahmed Eissa, Stefania Ferretti, Giampaolo Bianchi, Stefano Di Bari, Rui Farinha, Pietro Piazza, Enrico Checcucci, Inés Rivero Belenchón, Alessandro Veccia, Juan Gomez Rivas, Mark Taratkin, Karl-Friedrich Kowalewski, Severin Rodler, Pieter De Backer, Giovanni Enrico Cacciamani, Ruben De Groote, Anthony G. Gallagher, Alexandre Mottrie, Salvatore MicaliStefano Puliatti

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The prevalence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasing due to advanced imaging techniques. Surgical resection is the standard treatment, involving complex radical and partial nephrectomy procedures that demand extensive training and planning. Furthermore, artificial intelligence (AI) can potentially aid the training process in the field of kidney cancer. This review explores how artificial intelligence (AI) can create a framework for kidney cancer surgery to address training difficulties. Following PRISMA 2020 criteria, an exhaustive search of PubMed and SCOPUS databases was conducted without any filters or restrictions. Inclusion criteria encompassed original English articles focusing on AI’s role in kidney cancer surgical training. On the other hand, all non-original articles and articles published in any language other than English were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the articles, with a third party settling any disagreement. Study specifics, AI tools, methodologies, endpoints, and outcomes were extracted by the same authors. The Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine’s evidence levels were employed to assess the studies. Out of 468 identified records, 14 eligible studies were selected. Potential AI applications in kidney cancer surgical training include analyzing surgical workflow, annotating instruments, identifying tissues, and 3D reconstruction. AI is capable of appraising surgical skills, including the identification of procedural steps and instrument tracking. While AI and augmented reality (AR) enhance training, challenges persist in real-time tracking and registration. The utilization of AI-driven 3D reconstruction proves beneficial for intraoperative guidance and preoperative preparation. Artificial intelligence (AI) shows potential for advancing surgical training by providing unbiased evaluations, personalized feedback, and enhanced learning processes. Yet challenges such as consistent metric measurement, ethical concerns, and data privacy must be addressed. The integration of AI into kidney cancer surgical training offers solutions to training difficulties and a boost to surgical education. However, to fully harness its potential, additional studies are imperative.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3070
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
Issue number19
Early online date27 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 27 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

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© 2023 by the authors.


  • RAPN
  • partial nephrectomy
  • radical nephrectomy
  • kidney cancer
  • renal cancer
  • annotation
  • deep learning
  • computer vision
  • artificial neural network
  • artificial intelligence
  • training
  • augmented reality
  • simulation


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