Are emergency care nurses prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive incidents?

Christina J. Mitchell, George Kernohan, Ray Higginson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two main areas exist within emergency care where chemical, biological, radiological, nuclearand explosive preparedness can be focused: departmental preparedness and staff prepared-ness. This study focused upon the latter.Aim: To identify areas where nurses require training in order to improve preparedness for aCBRNe incident.Methods: A competency questionnaire was developed from the literature and completed by 50nursing staff across three Emergency Departments within one NHS Trust in Northern Ireland.Descriptive analysis was used for the quantitative data along with content analysis for the qual-itative questions.Results: Six key areas were identified for training; waste management (including clinicalwaste, contaminated clothing, contaminated water and the management of the contaminateddeceased), Triage, Chain of command, PODs, awareness of the range of Personal ProtectiveEquipment and its appropriate use and the decontamination of people and equipment.Conclusion: There is a need for a standardised ‘blueprint’ of role-specific competency criteriafor a CBRNe incident for all emergency healthcare staff. The assessment tool used in this studycan help to assess levels of preparedness amongst nursing staff and, if adapted accordingly,help gauge preparedness of other key healthcare professionals.
LanguageEnglish
Pages151-161
JournalInternational Emergency Nursing
Volume20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2012

Fingerprint

Emergency Medical Services
Nurses
Waste Management
Delivery of Health Care
Northern Ireland
Clothing
Decontamination
Triage
Nursing Staff
Hospital Emergency Service
Emergencies
Equipment and Supplies
Water
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • CBRNe
  • Emergency nursing
  • Major incident preparedness

Cite this

@article{3a8a18f5a8aa41b5badec81037167f32,
title = "Are emergency care nurses prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive incidents?",
abstract = "Two main areas exist within emergency care where chemical, biological, radiological, nuclearand explosive preparedness can be focused: departmental preparedness and staff prepared-ness. This study focused upon the latter.Aim: To identify areas where nurses require training in order to improve preparedness for aCBRNe incident.Methods: A competency questionnaire was developed from the literature and completed by 50nursing staff across three Emergency Departments within one NHS Trust in Northern Ireland.Descriptive analysis was used for the quantitative data along with content analysis for the qual-itative questions.Results: Six key areas were identified for training; waste management (including clinicalwaste, contaminated clothing, contaminated water and the management of the contaminateddeceased), Triage, Chain of command, PODs, awareness of the range of Personal ProtectiveEquipment and its appropriate use and the decontamination of people and equipment.Conclusion: There is a need for a standardised ‘blueprint’ of role-specific competency criteriafor a CBRNe incident for all emergency healthcare staff. The assessment tool used in this studycan help to assess levels of preparedness amongst nursing staff and, if adapted accordingly,help gauge preparedness of other key healthcare professionals.",
keywords = "CBRNe, Emergency nursing, Major incident preparedness",
author = "Mitchell, {Christina J.} and George Kernohan and Ray Higginson",
note = "Reference text: References Adini et al., 2006 B. Adini, A. Goldberg, D. Loar, R. Cohen, R. Zodok and Y. Bar-Dayan, Assessing levels of hospital emergency preparedness. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 21 6 (2006), pp. 451–457. | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (11) Alexander, 2005 D. Alexander, Towards the development of a standard in emergency planning. Disaster Prevention and Management, 14 2 (2005), pp. 158–175. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (27) Anathallee et al., 2007 M. Anathallee, A. Curphey, N. Beeching, S. Carley, I. Crawford and K. Mackway-Jones, Emergency Departments (EDs) in the United Kingdom (UK) are not prepared for emerging biological threats and bioterrorism. Journal of Infection, 54 1 (2007), pp. 12–17. Article | PDF (146 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (5) Auf der Heide, 2006 E. Auf der Heide, The importance of evidence-based disaster planning. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 47 1 (2006), pp. 34–49. Article | PDF (317 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (57) Bloom, 1956 Bloom, B.S., 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain. David McKay, Co. Inc., New York.. Cabinet Office, 2004 Cabinet Office, 2004. Civil Contingencies Act 2004: A Short Guide (Revised). Civil Contingencies Secretariat. <http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/resources/ccact-shortguide.pdf> (accessed 20.04.11).. Carley and Mackway-Jones, 2005 Carley, S., Mackway-Jones, K., 2005. Major Incident Medical Management and Support: The Practical Approach in the Hospital. MIMMS, Advanced Life Support Group. Blackwell Publishing.. Chapman and Arbon, 2008 K. Chapman and P. Arbon, Are nurses ready? Disaster preparedness in the acute setting. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal, 11 3 (2008), pp. 135–144. Article | PDF (611 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (5) De Ceballos et al., 2005 J.P. De Ceballos, F. Turegano-Fuentes, D. Perez-Diaz, M. Sanz-Sanchez, C. Martin-Llorente and J.E. Guerrero-Sanz, 11 March 2004: the terrorist bomb explodes in Madrid, Spain – an analysis of the logistics, injuries sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closest hospital. Critical Care, 9 1 (2005), pp. 104–111. Department of Health, 2009 Department of Health, 2009. The Operating Framework for the NHS in England 2010/2011. <http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/@ps/@sta/@perf/documents/digitalasset/dh_110159.pdf> (accessed 21.04.11).. Department of Health, Emergency Preparedness Division, 2005 Department of Health, Emergency Preparedness Division, 2005. The NHS Emergency Planning Guidance. <http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digital/assets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4121236.pdf> (accessed 14.04.11).. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2009 Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, Northern Ireland, 2009. A Manual for Accident and Emergency Departments Northern Ireland. Health Protection Branch, DHSSPS NI.. Duan, 2006 Y. Duan, Selecting and applying taxonomies for learning outcomes: a nursing example. International Journal of Nursing Education, 3 1 (2006), pp. 1–12. Edkins and Murray, 2005 A. Edkins and V. Murray, Management of chemically contaminated bodies. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 98 4 (2005), pp. 141–145. | View Record in Scopus | Field, 2005 Field, A., 2005. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (Introducing Statistical Methods Series), second ed. Sage Publications Inc., California.. Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias, 2008 Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Nachmias, D., 2008. Research Methods in the Social Sciences, seventh ed. Worth Publishers, New York, USA.. Heptonstall and Gent, 2008 Heptonstall, J., Gent, N., 2008. CBRN Incidents: Clinical Management & Health Protection. Health Protection Agency, London (Version 4, November 2006).. Home Office, 2010 Home Office, 2010. The United Kingdom’s Strategy For Countering Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Terrorism. HM Government. <http://www.ambulancehart.org.uk/site_content_files/files/cbrn_strategy.pdf> (accessed 13.04.11).. Hsu et al., 2006 E.B. Hsu, T.L. Thomas, E.B. Bass, D. Whyne, G.D. Kelen and G.B. Green, Healthcare competencies for disaster training. BMC Medical Education, 6 19 (2006), pp. 1–9. Lavery and Horan, 2005 G.G. Lavery and E. Horan, Clinical review: communication and logistics in the response to the 1998 terrorist bombing in Omagh, Northern Ireland. Critical Care, 9 4 (2005), pp. 401–408. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (6) Leiba et al., 2006 A. Leiba, A. Goldberg, A. Hourvitz, Y. Amsalem, A. Aran, G. Weiss, R. Leiba, Y. Yehezkelll, A. Goldberg, Y. Levi and Y. Bar-Dayan, Lessons learned from clinical anthrax drills: evaluation of knowledge and preparedness for a bioterrorist threat in Israeli emergency departments. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 48 2 (2006), pp. 194–199. Likert, 1932 R. Likert, A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 22 140 (1932), pp. 1–55. Linney et al., 2010 A.C.S. Linney, W.G. Kernohan and R. Higginson, The identification of competencies for an NHS response to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive (CBRNe) emergencies. International Emergency Nursing, 19 2 (2010), pp. 96–105. Luther et al., 2006 M. Luther, S. Lenson and K. Reed, Issues associated in chemical, biological and radiological emergency department response preparedness. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal, 9 2 (2006), pp. 79–84. Article | PDF (312 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (2) Mitani et al., 2003 S. Mitani, K. Kuboyama and T. Shirakawa, Nursing in sudden-onset disasters: factors and information that affect participation. Prehospital Disaster Medicine, 18 4 (2003), pp. 359–366. Murray et al., 2006 V. Murray, J. Clifford, G. Seynaeve and J.M. Fisher, Disaster health education and training: a pilot questionnaire to understand current status. Prehospital Disaster Medicine, 21 3 (2006), pp. 156–167. | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (2) Nursing Emergency Preparedness Education Coalition, 2003 Nursing Emergency Preparedness Education Coalition, 2003. Educational competencies for registered nurses responding to mass casualty incidents. In: International Nursing Coalition for Mass Casualty Education. NEPEC. <http://www.nursing.vanderbilt.edu/incmce/competencies.html> (accessed 21.04.11).. Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister, 2005 Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister, 2005. The Northern Ireland Civil Contingencies Framework. Central Emergency Planning Unit, Northern Ireland.. Okumura et al., 1998 T. Okumura, K. Suzuki, A. Fukuda, A. Kohama, N. Takasu and S. Ishimatsu, The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management. Part 1: community emergency response. Academic Emergency Medicine, 5 6 (1998), pp. 613–617. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (110) Parahoo, 2006 Parahoo, K., 2006. Nursing Research, Principles, Process and Issues, second ed. Macmillan, Palgrave.. Potter and Carter, 2000 S.J.O. Potter and G.E. Carter, The Omagh bombing – a medical perspective. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, 146 1 (2000), pp. 18–21. | View Record in Scopus | Security Service MI5, 2011 Security Service MI5, 2011. Current Threat Level. <http://www.mi5.gov.uk/output/threat-levels.html> (accessed 13.04.11).. Slepski, 2007 L.A. Slepski, Emergency preparedness and professional competency among health care providers during hurricanes Katrina and Rita: pilot study results. Disaster Management & Response, 5 4 (2007), pp. 99–110. Article | PDF (217 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (9) Vinson, 2007 E. Vinson, Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill. Disaster Management & Response, 5 1 (2007), pp. 18–21. Article | PDF (65 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (2) Vogt and Sorensen, 2002 Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H., 2002. How Clean Is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Tennessee.. Waeckerle, 2004 Waeckerle, J.A., 2004. Emergency departments: the Achilles heel of domestic preparedness. In: Paper Presentation at the Future of Emergency Care Conference. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC (February 2–4).. Wynd et al., 2003 C.A. Wynd, B. Schmidt and M.A. Schaefer, Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25 5 (2003), pp. 508–518. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (29)",
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language = "English",
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journal = "International Emergency Nursing",
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Are emergency care nurses prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive incidents? / Mitchell, Christina J.; Kernohan, George; Higginson, Ray.

In: International Emergency Nursing, Vol. 20, 10.06.2012, p. 151-161.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Are emergency care nurses prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive incidents?

AU - Mitchell, Christina J.

AU - Kernohan, George

AU - Higginson, Ray

N1 - Reference text: References Adini et al., 2006 B. Adini, A. Goldberg, D. Loar, R. Cohen, R. Zodok and Y. Bar-Dayan, Assessing levels of hospital emergency preparedness. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 21 6 (2006), pp. 451–457. | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (11) Alexander, 2005 D. Alexander, Towards the development of a standard in emergency planning. Disaster Prevention and Management, 14 2 (2005), pp. 158–175. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (27) Anathallee et al., 2007 M. Anathallee, A. Curphey, N. Beeching, S. Carley, I. Crawford and K. Mackway-Jones, Emergency Departments (EDs) in the United Kingdom (UK) are not prepared for emerging biological threats and bioterrorism. Journal of Infection, 54 1 (2007), pp. 12–17. Article | PDF (146 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (5) Auf der Heide, 2006 E. Auf der Heide, The importance of evidence-based disaster planning. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 47 1 (2006), pp. 34–49. Article | PDF (317 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (57) Bloom, 1956 Bloom, B.S., 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain. David McKay, Co. Inc., New York.. Cabinet Office, 2004 Cabinet Office, 2004. Civil Contingencies Act 2004: A Short Guide (Revised). Civil Contingencies Secretariat. <http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/resources/ccact-shortguide.pdf> (accessed 20.04.11).. Carley and Mackway-Jones, 2005 Carley, S., Mackway-Jones, K., 2005. Major Incident Medical Management and Support: The Practical Approach in the Hospital. MIMMS, Advanced Life Support Group. Blackwell Publishing.. Chapman and Arbon, 2008 K. Chapman and P. Arbon, Are nurses ready? Disaster preparedness in the acute setting. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal, 11 3 (2008), pp. 135–144. Article | PDF (611 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (5) De Ceballos et al., 2005 J.P. De Ceballos, F. Turegano-Fuentes, D. Perez-Diaz, M. Sanz-Sanchez, C. Martin-Llorente and J.E. Guerrero-Sanz, 11 March 2004: the terrorist bomb explodes in Madrid, Spain – an analysis of the logistics, injuries sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closest hospital. Critical Care, 9 1 (2005), pp. 104–111. Department of Health, 2009 Department of Health, 2009. The Operating Framework for the NHS in England 2010/2011. <http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/@ps/@sta/@perf/documents/digitalasset/dh_110159.pdf> (accessed 21.04.11).. Department of Health, Emergency Preparedness Division, 2005 Department of Health, Emergency Preparedness Division, 2005. The NHS Emergency Planning Guidance. <http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digital/assets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4121236.pdf> (accessed 14.04.11).. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2009 Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, Northern Ireland, 2009. A Manual for Accident and Emergency Departments Northern Ireland. Health Protection Branch, DHSSPS NI.. Duan, 2006 Y. Duan, Selecting and applying taxonomies for learning outcomes: a nursing example. International Journal of Nursing Education, 3 1 (2006), pp. 1–12. Edkins and Murray, 2005 A. Edkins and V. Murray, Management of chemically contaminated bodies. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 98 4 (2005), pp. 141–145. | View Record in Scopus | Field, 2005 Field, A., 2005. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (Introducing Statistical Methods Series), second ed. Sage Publications Inc., California.. Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias, 2008 Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Nachmias, D., 2008. Research Methods in the Social Sciences, seventh ed. Worth Publishers, New York, USA.. Heptonstall and Gent, 2008 Heptonstall, J., Gent, N., 2008. CBRN Incidents: Clinical Management & Health Protection. Health Protection Agency, London (Version 4, November 2006).. Home Office, 2010 Home Office, 2010. The United Kingdom’s Strategy For Countering Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Terrorism. HM Government. <http://www.ambulancehart.org.uk/site_content_files/files/cbrn_strategy.pdf> (accessed 13.04.11).. Hsu et al., 2006 E.B. Hsu, T.L. Thomas, E.B. Bass, D. Whyne, G.D. Kelen and G.B. Green, Healthcare competencies for disaster training. BMC Medical Education, 6 19 (2006), pp. 1–9. Lavery and Horan, 2005 G.G. Lavery and E. Horan, Clinical review: communication and logistics in the response to the 1998 terrorist bombing in Omagh, Northern Ireland. Critical Care, 9 4 (2005), pp. 401–408. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (6) Leiba et al., 2006 A. Leiba, A. Goldberg, A. Hourvitz, Y. Amsalem, A. Aran, G. Weiss, R. Leiba, Y. Yehezkelll, A. Goldberg, Y. Levi and Y. Bar-Dayan, Lessons learned from clinical anthrax drills: evaluation of knowledge and preparedness for a bioterrorist threat in Israeli emergency departments. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 48 2 (2006), pp. 194–199. Likert, 1932 R. Likert, A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 22 140 (1932), pp. 1–55. Linney et al., 2010 A.C.S. Linney, W.G. Kernohan and R. Higginson, The identification of competencies for an NHS response to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive (CBRNe) emergencies. International Emergency Nursing, 19 2 (2010), pp. 96–105. Luther et al., 2006 M. Luther, S. Lenson and K. Reed, Issues associated in chemical, biological and radiological emergency department response preparedness. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal, 9 2 (2006), pp. 79–84. Article | PDF (312 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (2) Mitani et al., 2003 S. Mitani, K. Kuboyama and T. Shirakawa, Nursing in sudden-onset disasters: factors and information that affect participation. Prehospital Disaster Medicine, 18 4 (2003), pp. 359–366. Murray et al., 2006 V. Murray, J. Clifford, G. Seynaeve and J.M. Fisher, Disaster health education and training: a pilot questionnaire to understand current status. Prehospital Disaster Medicine, 21 3 (2006), pp. 156–167. | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (2) Nursing Emergency Preparedness Education Coalition, 2003 Nursing Emergency Preparedness Education Coalition, 2003. Educational competencies for registered nurses responding to mass casualty incidents. In: International Nursing Coalition for Mass Casualty Education. NEPEC. <http://www.nursing.vanderbilt.edu/incmce/competencies.html> (accessed 21.04.11).. Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister, 2005 Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister, 2005. The Northern Ireland Civil Contingencies Framework. Central Emergency Planning Unit, Northern Ireland.. Okumura et al., 1998 T. Okumura, K. Suzuki, A. Fukuda, A. Kohama, N. Takasu and S. Ishimatsu, The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management. Part 1: community emergency response. Academic Emergency Medicine, 5 6 (1998), pp. 613–617. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (110) Parahoo, 2006 Parahoo, K., 2006. Nursing Research, Principles, Process and Issues, second ed. Macmillan, Palgrave.. Potter and Carter, 2000 S.J.O. Potter and G.E. Carter, The Omagh bombing – a medical perspective. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, 146 1 (2000), pp. 18–21. | View Record in Scopus | Security Service MI5, 2011 Security Service MI5, 2011. Current Threat Level. <http://www.mi5.gov.uk/output/threat-levels.html> (accessed 13.04.11).. Slepski, 2007 L.A. Slepski, Emergency preparedness and professional competency among health care providers during hurricanes Katrina and Rita: pilot study results. Disaster Management & Response, 5 4 (2007), pp. 99–110. Article | PDF (217 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (9) Vinson, 2007 E. Vinson, Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill. Disaster Management & Response, 5 1 (2007), pp. 18–21. Article | PDF (65 K) | | View Record in Scopus | | Cited By in Scopus (2) Vogt and Sorensen, 2002 Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H., 2002. How Clean Is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Tennessee.. Waeckerle, 2004 Waeckerle, J.A., 2004. Emergency departments: the Achilles heel of domestic preparedness. In: Paper Presentation at the Future of Emergency Care Conference. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC (February 2–4).. Wynd et al., 2003 C.A. Wynd, B. Schmidt and M.A. Schaefer, Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25 5 (2003), pp. 508–518. | View Record in Scopus | | Full Text via CrossRef | Cited By in Scopus (29)

PY - 2012/6/10

Y1 - 2012/6/10

N2 - Two main areas exist within emergency care where chemical, biological, radiological, nuclearand explosive preparedness can be focused: departmental preparedness and staff prepared-ness. This study focused upon the latter.Aim: To identify areas where nurses require training in order to improve preparedness for aCBRNe incident.Methods: A competency questionnaire was developed from the literature and completed by 50nursing staff across three Emergency Departments within one NHS Trust in Northern Ireland.Descriptive analysis was used for the quantitative data along with content analysis for the qual-itative questions.Results: Six key areas were identified for training; waste management (including clinicalwaste, contaminated clothing, contaminated water and the management of the contaminateddeceased), Triage, Chain of command, PODs, awareness of the range of Personal ProtectiveEquipment and its appropriate use and the decontamination of people and equipment.Conclusion: There is a need for a standardised ‘blueprint’ of role-specific competency criteriafor a CBRNe incident for all emergency healthcare staff. The assessment tool used in this studycan help to assess levels of preparedness amongst nursing staff and, if adapted accordingly,help gauge preparedness of other key healthcare professionals.

AB - Two main areas exist within emergency care where chemical, biological, radiological, nuclearand explosive preparedness can be focused: departmental preparedness and staff prepared-ness. This study focused upon the latter.Aim: To identify areas where nurses require training in order to improve preparedness for aCBRNe incident.Methods: A competency questionnaire was developed from the literature and completed by 50nursing staff across three Emergency Departments within one NHS Trust in Northern Ireland.Descriptive analysis was used for the quantitative data along with content analysis for the qual-itative questions.Results: Six key areas were identified for training; waste management (including clinicalwaste, contaminated clothing, contaminated water and the management of the contaminateddeceased), Triage, Chain of command, PODs, awareness of the range of Personal ProtectiveEquipment and its appropriate use and the decontamination of people and equipment.Conclusion: There is a need for a standardised ‘blueprint’ of role-specific competency criteriafor a CBRNe incident for all emergency healthcare staff. The assessment tool used in this studycan help to assess levels of preparedness amongst nursing staff and, if adapted accordingly,help gauge preparedness of other key healthcare professionals.

KW - CBRNe

KW - Emergency nursing

KW - Major incident preparedness

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DO - 10.1016/j.ienj.2011.10.001

M3 - Article

VL - 20

SP - 151

EP - 161

JO - International Emergency Nursing

T2 - International Emergency Nursing

JF - International Emergency Nursing

SN - 1755-599X

ER -