Appraisal of Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Biomarkers, and Ocular Imaging in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

Julie S. Moore, Andrew Nesbit, Tara Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide despite the use of available cardiovascular disease risk prediction tools. Identification of high-risk individuals via risk stratification and screening at sub-clinical stages, which may be offered by ocular screening, is important to prevent major adverse cardiac events. Retinal microvasculature has been widely researched for potential application in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk prediction. However, the conjunctival microvasculature as a tool for cardiovascular disease risk prediction remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current cardiovascular risk assessment methods, identifying gaps in the literature that imaging of the ocular microcirculation may have the potential to fill. This review also explores the themes of machine learning, risk scores, biomarkers, medical imaging, and clinical risk factors. Cardiovascular risk classification varies based on the population assessed, the risk factors included, and the assessment methods. A more tailored, standardised and feasible approach to cardiovascular risk prediction that utilises technological and medical imaging advances, which may be offered by ocular imaging, is required to support cardiovascular disease prevention strategies and clinical guidelines.
Original languageEnglish
Article number37497700
Pages (from-to)72-81
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Cardiology Reviews
Issue number6
Early online date27 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 27 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.


  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Eye
  • Medical Imaging
  • Microcirculation
  • Risk Factors


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