Analysis of spatter removal by sieving during a powder-bed fusion manufacturing campaign in grade 23 titanium alloy

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Abstract

The Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) process uses a laser beam to selectively melt powder particles deposited in a layer-wise fashion to manufacture components derived from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) information. During laser processing, material is ejected from the melt pool and is known as spatter. Spatter particles can have undesirable geometries for the L-PBF process, thereby compromising the quality of the powder for further reuse. An integral step in any powder replenishing and reuse procedure is the sieving process. The sieving process captures spatter particles within the exposed powder that have a diameter larger than a defined mesh size. This manuscript reports on Ti6Al4V (Grade 23) alloy powder that had been subjected to seven reuse iterations, focusing on the characterisation of powder particles that had been captured (i.e., removed) by the sieving processes. Characterisation included chemical composition focusing upon interstitial elements O, N and H (wt.%), particle morphology and particle size analysis. On review of the compositional analysis, the oxygen contents were 0.43 wt.% and 0.40 wt.% within the 63 µm and 50 µm sieve-captured powder, respectively. Additionally, it was found that a minimum of 79% and 63% of spatter particles were present within the captured powder removed by the 63 µm and 50 µm sieves, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number399
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalMetals
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: The North West Centre for Advanced Manufacturing (NW CAM) project is supported by the European Union’s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). The views and opinions in this document do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission or the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). If you would like further information about NW CAM please contact the lead partner, Catalyst, for details.

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB), as part of the NW CAM project. The APC was funded through the NW CAM project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing (AM)
  • Agglomeration
  • Metal powder
  • Sieving
  • Ti6Al4V

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