This study is aimed at the detection of single-trial feedback, perceived as erroneous by the user, using a transferable classification system while conducting a motor imagery brain–computer interfacing (BCI) task. The feedback received by the users are relayed from a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device and hence are somato-sensory in nature. The BCI system designed for this study activates an electrical stimulator placed on the left hand, right hand, left foot, and right foot of the user. Trials containing erroneous feedback can be detected from the neural signals in form of the error related potential (ErrP). The inclusion of neuro-feedback during the experiments indicated the possibility that ErrP signals can be evoked when the participant perceives an error from the feedback. Hence, to detect such feedback using ErrP, a transferable (offline) decoder based on optimal transport theory is introduced herein. The offline system detects single-trial erroneous trials from the feedback period of an online neuro-feedback BCI system. The results of the FES-based feedback BCI system were compared to a similar visual-based (VIS) feedback system. Using our framework, the error detector systems for both the FES and VIS feedback paradigms achieved an F1-score of 92.66% and 83.10%, respectively, and are significantly superior to a comparative system where an optimal transport was not used. It is expected that this form of transferable and automated error detection system compounded with a motor imagery system will augment the performance of a BCI and provide a better BCI-based neuro-rehabilitation protocol that has an error control mechanism embedded into it.
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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- brain–computer interfacing
- error related potential
- functional electrical stimulation
- somato-sensory feedback
- optimal transport
- transfer learning
- Somato-sensory feedback
- Transfer learning
- Error related potential
- Functional electrical stimulation
- Optimal transport
- Brain–computer interfacing