An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat

H Meredith, D Walsh, D A McDowell, D J Bolton

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    17 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm2 reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3–5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm2, respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The ‘colour’ of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The ‘intensity of chicken odour’ and the perception of ‘salt’ in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages309-315
    JournalInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
    Volume166
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    Campylobacter
    poultry meat
    chemical treatment
    Immersion
    Poultry
    fillets
    Meat
    meat processing plants
    sensory properties
    Chickens
    chickens
    skin (animal)
    Skin
    poultry skin
    chlorites
    campylobacteriosis
    sodium phosphate
    dipping
    bacterial infections
    Bacterial Infections

    Keywords

    • Chemical decontamination
    • Poultry
    • Campylobacter
    • Sensory analysis
    • ‘In-plant’ studies

    Cite this

    @article{c50075fd05da4e12935fc02a61dae006,
    title = "An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat",
    abstract = "Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14{\%}, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5{\%}, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5{\%}, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14{\%}) and CA (5{\%}) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14{\%}), LA (5{\%}), CA (5{\%}) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm2 reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3–5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14{\%}) or CA (5{\%}) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm2, respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The ‘colour’ of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14{\%}, w/v) and CA (5{\%}, w/v) was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The ‘intensity of chicken odour’ and the perception of ‘salt’ in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5{\%}, w/v) were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14{\%}, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14{\%}) or CA (5{\%}) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product.",
    keywords = "Chemical decontamination, Poultry, Campylobacter, Sensory analysis, ‘In-plant’ studies",
    author = "H Meredith and D Walsh and McDowell, {D A} and Bolton, {D J}",
    note = "Reference text: Anonymous, 1992. FSIS permits trisodium phosphate in poultry plants. Food Safety and Inspection Service background Document, October. Bashor, M.P., Curtis, P.A., Keener, K.M., Sheldon, B.W., Kathariou, S., Osborne, J.A., 2004. Effects of carcass washers on Campylobacter contamination in large broiler processing plants. Poultry Science 83, 1232–1239. Bolder, N.M., 2007. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production. World's Poultry Science Journal 63, 401–411. Chantarapanont, W., Berrang, M.E., Frank, J.F., 2004. Direct microscopic observation of viability of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin treated with selected chemical sanitizing agents. Journal of Food Protection 67, 1146–1152. Corry, J., Purnell,G., James, C.,Pinho,R.,Hedges,A., Jorgensen, F., James, S.J.,Howell,M., 2008. Evaluation of Chemicals for the Inactivation of Naturally Occurring Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Carcasses. FoodMicro 2008. Evolving Microbial Food Quality and Safety. Aberdeen, Scotland p. 349 (Abstract Book, PN37, 1–4th September 2008). Cosansu, S.,Ayhan,K.,2010. Effectsof lactic acid andacetic acid treatments on Campylobacter jejuni inoculated onto chicken leg and breastmeat during storage at 4 °C and−18 °C. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34 (Supplement 1), 98–113. del Rio, E., Panizo-Moran,M., Prieto,M., Alonso-Calleja, C., Capita, R., 2007. Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology 115, 268–280. Ellerbroek, L., Lienau, J.A., Alter, T., Schlichting,D., 2007. Effectiveness of different chemical decontamination methods on the Campylobacter load of poultry carcasses. Fleischwirtschaft 4, 224–227. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2005. Treatment of poultry carcasses with chlorine dioxide, acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate and peroxyacids. EFSA Journal 2005 297, 1–27. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2006. Guidance document on the safety and the efficacy of substances for the removal of microbial surface contamination of foods of animal origin. The EFSA Journal 388, 1–19. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2008.Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008. EFSA Journal 2010 8, 1522–1528. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2011. Scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA Journal 9 (4), 2105 (1–141). European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2012. European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; the European union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2010. EFSA Journal 2012 10 (3), 2597. Havelaar, A.H., Nauta, M.J., Mangen, M.-J.J., de Koeijer, A.G., Bogaardt, M.-J., Evers, E.G., Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F., van Pelt, W., Wagenaar, J.A., de Wit, G.A., van der Zee, H., 2005. Costs and Benefits of Controlling Campylobacter in The Netherlands. Integrating Risk Analysis, Epidemiology and Economics.Dutch National Institute for Public health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Hunt, J.M., 1992. Campylobacter, FDA Bacteriological Manual Seventh edition. 77–94. ISO, 1988. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Sensory Analysis - General Guidance for the Design of Test Rooms. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland (1988 ISO 8589:1988(E)). ISO, 1993. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Sensory analysis — General Guidance for the Selection, Training and Monitoring of Assessors: Part 1. Selected Assessors. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland (1993 ISO 8586–1:1993 (E)). Kim, J.W., Slavik, M.F., 1994. Removal of Salmonella Typhimurium attached to chicken skin by rinsing with trisodium phosphate solution: scanning electron microscope examination. Journal of Food Safety 14, 77–84. Lindqvist, R., Lindblad, M., 2008. Quantitative risk assessment of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and cross-contamination during handling of rawbroiler chickens evaluating strategies at the producer level to reduce human campylobacteriosis in Sweden. International Journal of FoodMicrobiology 121, 41–52. Loretz, M., Stephan, R., Zweifel, C., 2010. Antimicrobial activity of decontamination treatments for poultry carcasses: a literature survey. Food Control 21, 791–804. MacFie, H.J., Bratchell, N., Greenhoff, K., Vallis, I.V., 1989. Designs to balance the effect of order of presentationand first-order carry-over effects inHall tests. Journal of Sensory Studies 4, 129. Newell, D.G., Elvers, K.T., Dopfer, D., Hansson, I., Jones, P., James, S., Gittins, J., Stern, N.J., Davies, R., Connerton, I., Pearson,D., Salvat,G., Allen, V.M., 2011. Biosecurity-based interventions andstrategies to reduce Campylobacter spp. onpoultry farms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, 8605–8614. Oyarzabal, O.A., Hawk, C., Bilgili, S.F., Warf, C.C., Kemp, G.K., 2004. Effects of post-chill application of acidified sodium chlorite to control Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on commercial broiler carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 67, 2288–2291. Patriarchi, A., Maunsell, B., O'Mahony, E., Fox, A., Fanning, S., Bolton, D., 2009. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a subset of intensive poultry flocks in Ireland. Letters in Applied Microbiology 49 (3), 305–310. Riedel, C.T., Brondsted, L., Rosenquist, H., Haxgart, S.N., Christensen, B.B., 2009. Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat. Journal of Food Protection 72 (6), 1173–1180. 315 Rosenquist,H., Nielsen,N.L., Sommer,H.M.,Norrung, B., Christensen, B.B., 2003. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens. International Journal of Food Microbiology 83, 87–103. Sampers, I., Habib, I., Berkvens, D., Dumoulin, A., Zutter, L.D., Uyttendaele, M., 2008. Processing practices contributing to Campyobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. International Journal of Food Microbiology 128 (2), 297–303. Slavik, M.F., Kim, J.W., Pharr, M.D., Raben, D.P., Tsai, S., Lobsinger, C.M., 1994. Effect of trisodium phosphate on Campylobacter attached to post-chill chicken carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 57, 324–326. Whyte, P., Collins, J.D., McGill, K., Monahan, C., O'Mahony, H., 2001. Quantitative investigation of the effects of chemical decontamination procedures on the microbiological status of broiler carcasses during processing. Journal of Food Protection 64, 179–183. Whyte, P., McGill, K., Collins, J.D., 2003. An assessment of steam pasteurisation and hot water immersion treatments for the microbiological decontamination of broiler carcasses. Food Microbiology 20, 111–117.",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.07.005",
    language = "English",
    volume = "166",
    pages = "309--315",
    journal = "International Journal of Food Microbiology",
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    }

    An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat. / Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A; Bolton, D J.

    In: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 166, No. 2, 2013, p. 309-315.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat

    AU - Meredith, H

    AU - Walsh, D

    AU - McDowell, D A

    AU - Bolton, D J

    N1 - Reference text: Anonymous, 1992. FSIS permits trisodium phosphate in poultry plants. Food Safety and Inspection Service background Document, October. Bashor, M.P., Curtis, P.A., Keener, K.M., Sheldon, B.W., Kathariou, S., Osborne, J.A., 2004. Effects of carcass washers on Campylobacter contamination in large broiler processing plants. Poultry Science 83, 1232–1239. Bolder, N.M., 2007. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production. World's Poultry Science Journal 63, 401–411. Chantarapanont, W., Berrang, M.E., Frank, J.F., 2004. Direct microscopic observation of viability of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin treated with selected chemical sanitizing agents. Journal of Food Protection 67, 1146–1152. Corry, J., Purnell,G., James, C.,Pinho,R.,Hedges,A., Jorgensen, F., James, S.J.,Howell,M., 2008. Evaluation of Chemicals for the Inactivation of Naturally Occurring Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Carcasses. FoodMicro 2008. Evolving Microbial Food Quality and Safety. Aberdeen, Scotland p. 349 (Abstract Book, PN37, 1–4th September 2008). Cosansu, S.,Ayhan,K.,2010. Effectsof lactic acid andacetic acid treatments on Campylobacter jejuni inoculated onto chicken leg and breastmeat during storage at 4 °C and−18 °C. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34 (Supplement 1), 98–113. del Rio, E., Panizo-Moran,M., Prieto,M., Alonso-Calleja, C., Capita, R., 2007. Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology 115, 268–280. Ellerbroek, L., Lienau, J.A., Alter, T., Schlichting,D., 2007. Effectiveness of different chemical decontamination methods on the Campylobacter load of poultry carcasses. Fleischwirtschaft 4, 224–227. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2005. Treatment of poultry carcasses with chlorine dioxide, acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate and peroxyacids. EFSA Journal 2005 297, 1–27. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2006. Guidance document on the safety and the efficacy of substances for the removal of microbial surface contamination of foods of animal origin. The EFSA Journal 388, 1–19. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2008.Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008. EFSA Journal 2010 8, 1522–1528. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2011. Scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA Journal 9 (4), 2105 (1–141). European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2012. European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; the European union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2010. EFSA Journal 2012 10 (3), 2597. Havelaar, A.H., Nauta, M.J., Mangen, M.-J.J., de Koeijer, A.G., Bogaardt, M.-J., Evers, E.G., Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F., van Pelt, W., Wagenaar, J.A., de Wit, G.A., van der Zee, H., 2005. Costs and Benefits of Controlling Campylobacter in The Netherlands. Integrating Risk Analysis, Epidemiology and Economics.Dutch National Institute for Public health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Hunt, J.M., 1992. Campylobacter, FDA Bacteriological Manual Seventh edition. 77–94. ISO, 1988. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Sensory Analysis - General Guidance for the Design of Test Rooms. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland (1988 ISO 8589:1988(E)). ISO, 1993. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Sensory analysis — General Guidance for the Selection, Training and Monitoring of Assessors: Part 1. Selected Assessors. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland (1993 ISO 8586–1:1993 (E)). Kim, J.W., Slavik, M.F., 1994. Removal of Salmonella Typhimurium attached to chicken skin by rinsing with trisodium phosphate solution: scanning electron microscope examination. Journal of Food Safety 14, 77–84. Lindqvist, R., Lindblad, M., 2008. Quantitative risk assessment of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and cross-contamination during handling of rawbroiler chickens evaluating strategies at the producer level to reduce human campylobacteriosis in Sweden. International Journal of FoodMicrobiology 121, 41–52. Loretz, M., Stephan, R., Zweifel, C., 2010. Antimicrobial activity of decontamination treatments for poultry carcasses: a literature survey. Food Control 21, 791–804. MacFie, H.J., Bratchell, N., Greenhoff, K., Vallis, I.V., 1989. Designs to balance the effect of order of presentationand first-order carry-over effects inHall tests. Journal of Sensory Studies 4, 129. Newell, D.G., Elvers, K.T., Dopfer, D., Hansson, I., Jones, P., James, S., Gittins, J., Stern, N.J., Davies, R., Connerton, I., Pearson,D., Salvat,G., Allen, V.M., 2011. Biosecurity-based interventions andstrategies to reduce Campylobacter spp. onpoultry farms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, 8605–8614. Oyarzabal, O.A., Hawk, C., Bilgili, S.F., Warf, C.C., Kemp, G.K., 2004. Effects of post-chill application of acidified sodium chlorite to control Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on commercial broiler carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 67, 2288–2291. Patriarchi, A., Maunsell, B., O'Mahony, E., Fox, A., Fanning, S., Bolton, D., 2009. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a subset of intensive poultry flocks in Ireland. Letters in Applied Microbiology 49 (3), 305–310. Riedel, C.T., Brondsted, L., Rosenquist, H., Haxgart, S.N., Christensen, B.B., 2009. Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat. Journal of Food Protection 72 (6), 1173–1180. 315 Rosenquist,H., Nielsen,N.L., Sommer,H.M.,Norrung, B., Christensen, B.B., 2003. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens. International Journal of Food Microbiology 83, 87–103. Sampers, I., Habib, I., Berkvens, D., Dumoulin, A., Zutter, L.D., Uyttendaele, M., 2008. Processing practices contributing to Campyobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. International Journal of Food Microbiology 128 (2), 297–303. Slavik, M.F., Kim, J.W., Pharr, M.D., Raben, D.P., Tsai, S., Lobsinger, C.M., 1994. Effect of trisodium phosphate on Campylobacter attached to post-chill chicken carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 57, 324–326. Whyte, P., Collins, J.D., McGill, K., Monahan, C., O'Mahony, H., 2001. Quantitative investigation of the effects of chemical decontamination procedures on the microbiological status of broiler carcasses during processing. Journal of Food Protection 64, 179–183. Whyte, P., McGill, K., Collins, J.D., 2003. An assessment of steam pasteurisation and hot water immersion treatments for the microbiological decontamination of broiler carcasses. Food Microbiology 20, 111–117.

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm2 reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3–5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm2, respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The ‘colour’ of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The ‘intensity of chicken odour’ and the perception of ‘salt’ in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product.

    AB - Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm2 reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3–5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm2, respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The ‘colour’ of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The ‘intensity of chicken odour’ and the perception of ‘salt’ in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product.

    KW - Chemical decontamination

    KW - Poultry

    KW - Campylobacter

    KW - Sensory analysis

    KW - ‘In-plant’ studies

    U2 - 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.07.005

    DO - 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.07.005

    M3 - Article

    VL - 166

    SP - 309

    EP - 315

    JO - International Journal of Food Microbiology

    T2 - International Journal of Food Microbiology

    JF - International Journal of Food Microbiology

    SN - 0168-1605

    IS - 2

    ER -