An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode

Stephen Cowan, Joanne McKenna, Evie McCrum-Gardner, Mark I. Johnson, Kathleen A. Sluka, Deirdre M. Walsh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    24 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study investigated the hypoalgesic effects of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivered via a glove electrode compared with standard self-adhesive electrodes. Fifty-six TENS-naive, healthy individuals (18 to 50 years old; 28 men, 28 women) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): glove electrode; placebo TENS using a glove electrode; standard electrode; and no treatment control. Active TENS (continuous stimulus, 100 Hz, strong but comfortable intensity) was applied to the dominant forearm/hand for 30 minutes. Placebo TENS was applied using a burst stimulus, 100-Hz frequency, 5-second cycle time for 42 seconds, after which the current amplitude was automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded from 3 points on the dominant and nondominant upper limbs before and after TENS. Statistical analyses of dominant PPT data using between-within groups ANOVA showed significant differences between groups at all 3 recording points (P = .01). Post hoc Scheffe tests indicated no significant difference between the standard electrode and glove electrode groups. There was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the standard electrode group compared with the control group and between the glove electrode group and both the control and placebo TENS groups. There was no significant interactive effect between time and group at any of the recording points (P > .05). Perspective: This study presents a comparison of the hypoalgesic effects of 2 different types of TENS electrode, a novel glove electrode and standard self-adhesive rectangular electrodes. The glove electrode provides a larger contact area with the skin, thereby stimulating a greater number of nerve fibers. The results show that both electrodes have similar hypoalgesic effects and therefore give the clinician another choice in electrode. (C) 2009 by the American Pain Society
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages694-701
    JournalJournal of Pain
    Volume10
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2009

    Fingerprint

    Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
    Electrodes
    Placebos
    Pain Threshold
    Adhesives
    Pressure
    Control Groups
    Nerve Fibers

    Cite this

    Cowan, S., McKenna, J., McCrum-Gardner, E., Johnson, M. I., Sluka, K. A., & Walsh, D. M. (2009). An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode. 10(7), 694-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.12.004
    Cowan, Stephen ; McKenna, Joanne ; McCrum-Gardner, Evie ; Johnson, Mark I. ; Sluka, Kathleen A. ; Walsh, Deirdre M. / An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode. 2009 ; Vol. 10, No. 7. pp. 694-701.
    @article{653b6614aaee4a40959f1ef2935807e6,
    title = "An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode",
    abstract = "This randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study investigated the hypoalgesic effects of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivered via a glove electrode compared with standard self-adhesive electrodes. Fifty-six TENS-naive, healthy individuals (18 to 50 years old; 28 men, 28 women) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): glove electrode; placebo TENS using a glove electrode; standard electrode; and no treatment control. Active TENS (continuous stimulus, 100 Hz, strong but comfortable intensity) was applied to the dominant forearm/hand for 30 minutes. Placebo TENS was applied using a burst stimulus, 100-Hz frequency, 5-second cycle time for 42 seconds, after which the current amplitude was automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded from 3 points on the dominant and nondominant upper limbs before and after TENS. Statistical analyses of dominant PPT data using between-within groups ANOVA showed significant differences between groups at all 3 recording points (P = .01). Post hoc Scheffe tests indicated no significant difference between the standard electrode and glove electrode groups. There was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the standard electrode group compared with the control group and between the glove electrode group and both the control and placebo TENS groups. There was no significant interactive effect between time and group at any of the recording points (P > .05). Perspective: This study presents a comparison of the hypoalgesic effects of 2 different types of TENS electrode, a novel glove electrode and standard self-adhesive rectangular electrodes. The glove electrode provides a larger contact area with the skin, thereby stimulating a greater number of nerve fibers. The results show that both electrodes have similar hypoalgesic effects and therefore give the clinician another choice in electrode. (C) 2009 by the American Pain Society",
    author = "Stephen Cowan and Joanne McKenna and Evie McCrum-Gardner and Johnson, {Mark I.} and Sluka, {Kathleen A.} and Walsh, {Deirdre M.}",
    year = "2009",
    month = "7",
    doi = "10.1016/j.jpain.2008.12.004",
    language = "English",
    volume = "10",
    pages = "694--701",
    number = "7",

    }

    Cowan, S, McKenna, J, McCrum-Gardner, E, Johnson, MI, Sluka, KA & Walsh, DM 2009, 'An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode', vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 694-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.12.004

    An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode. / Cowan, Stephen; McKenna, Joanne; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Johnson, Mark I.; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Walsh, Deirdre M.

    Vol. 10, No. 7, 07.2009, p. 694-701.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode

    AU - Cowan, Stephen

    AU - McKenna, Joanne

    AU - McCrum-Gardner, Evie

    AU - Johnson, Mark I.

    AU - Sluka, Kathleen A.

    AU - Walsh, Deirdre M.

    PY - 2009/7

    Y1 - 2009/7

    N2 - This randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study investigated the hypoalgesic effects of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivered via a glove electrode compared with standard self-adhesive electrodes. Fifty-six TENS-naive, healthy individuals (18 to 50 years old; 28 men, 28 women) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): glove electrode; placebo TENS using a glove electrode; standard electrode; and no treatment control. Active TENS (continuous stimulus, 100 Hz, strong but comfortable intensity) was applied to the dominant forearm/hand for 30 minutes. Placebo TENS was applied using a burst stimulus, 100-Hz frequency, 5-second cycle time for 42 seconds, after which the current amplitude was automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded from 3 points on the dominant and nondominant upper limbs before and after TENS. Statistical analyses of dominant PPT data using between-within groups ANOVA showed significant differences between groups at all 3 recording points (P = .01). Post hoc Scheffe tests indicated no significant difference between the standard electrode and glove electrode groups. There was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the standard electrode group compared with the control group and between the glove electrode group and both the control and placebo TENS groups. There was no significant interactive effect between time and group at any of the recording points (P > .05). Perspective: This study presents a comparison of the hypoalgesic effects of 2 different types of TENS electrode, a novel glove electrode and standard self-adhesive rectangular electrodes. The glove electrode provides a larger contact area with the skin, thereby stimulating a greater number of nerve fibers. The results show that both electrodes have similar hypoalgesic effects and therefore give the clinician another choice in electrode. (C) 2009 by the American Pain Society

    AB - This randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study investigated the hypoalgesic effects of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivered via a glove electrode compared with standard self-adhesive electrodes. Fifty-six TENS-naive, healthy individuals (18 to 50 years old; 28 men, 28 women) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): glove electrode; placebo TENS using a glove electrode; standard electrode; and no treatment control. Active TENS (continuous stimulus, 100 Hz, strong but comfortable intensity) was applied to the dominant forearm/hand for 30 minutes. Placebo TENS was applied using a burst stimulus, 100-Hz frequency, 5-second cycle time for 42 seconds, after which the current amplitude was automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded from 3 points on the dominant and nondominant upper limbs before and after TENS. Statistical analyses of dominant PPT data using between-within groups ANOVA showed significant differences between groups at all 3 recording points (P = .01). Post hoc Scheffe tests indicated no significant difference between the standard electrode and glove electrode groups. There was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the standard electrode group compared with the control group and between the glove electrode group and both the control and placebo TENS groups. There was no significant interactive effect between time and group at any of the recording points (P > .05). Perspective: This study presents a comparison of the hypoalgesic effects of 2 different types of TENS electrode, a novel glove electrode and standard self-adhesive rectangular electrodes. The glove electrode provides a larger contact area with the skin, thereby stimulating a greater number of nerve fibers. The results show that both electrodes have similar hypoalgesic effects and therefore give the clinician another choice in electrode. (C) 2009 by the American Pain Society

    U2 - 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.12.004

    DO - 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.12.004

    M3 - Article

    VL - 10

    SP - 694

    EP - 701

    IS - 7

    ER -

    Cowan S, McKenna J, McCrum-Gardner E, Johnson MI, Sluka KA, Walsh DM. An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode. 2009 Jul;10(7):694-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.12.004