An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM)

Robert Eadie, Tim McLernon, Adam Patton

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The UK Government Construction Strategy stipulates all Government construction projects need collaborative Level 2 BIM incorporated by 2016. The UK Government considers this will deliver improvements. However, literature identified significant legal issues stifling BIM implementation, including Design and Software Liability. A knowledge gap exists in the ranking of these issues. A web-based survey of the top 100 UK construction companies provides empirical data. Findings revealed the top five legal issues relating to BIM adoption, in order of importance, are; Model ownership, Incorporation of BIM into the contractual relationship of the parties involved. Design liability, Reliance on data and the Evolution and responsibility of model. Design responsibility, Lack of standardisation, litigation and protocols, Collaborative working, the Role of BIM co-ordinator and Sharing of copyrighted data, are the top five ranked design liability issues. The high ranking of these issues still raises concerns and contrasts with the BIM working group’s findings that little change is required in the fundamental building blocks of copyright law, contracts and insurance to facilitate working at Level 2 of BIM maturity. Furthermore, industry findings reveal that interoperability between parties, compatibility, security issues, data transfer and collaborative working were ranked as the top five software liability issues.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2015
EventRICS COBRA AUBEA 2015 - Sydney, Australia
Duration: 8 Jul 2015 → …

Conference

ConferenceRICS COBRA AUBEA 2015
Period8/07/15 → …

Fingerprint

Insurance
Data transfer
Interoperability
Standardization
Industry

Keywords

  • BIM
  • Legal issues
  • Ranking
  • Government procurement.

Cite this

Eadie, R., McLernon, T., & Patton, A. (2015). An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM). In Unknown Host Publication
Eadie, Robert ; McLernon, Tim ; Patton, Adam. / An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM). Unknown Host Publication. 2015.
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title = "An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM)",
abstract = "The UK Government Construction Strategy stipulates all Government construction projects need collaborative Level 2 BIM incorporated by 2016. The UK Government considers this will deliver improvements. However, literature identified significant legal issues stifling BIM implementation, including Design and Software Liability. A knowledge gap exists in the ranking of these issues. A web-based survey of the top 100 UK construction companies provides empirical data. Findings revealed the top five legal issues relating to BIM adoption, in order of importance, are; Model ownership, Incorporation of BIM into the contractual relationship of the parties involved. Design liability, Reliance on data and the Evolution and responsibility of model. Design responsibility, Lack of standardisation, litigation and protocols, Collaborative working, the Role of BIM co-ordinator and Sharing of copyrighted data, are the top five ranked design liability issues. The high ranking of these issues still raises concerns and contrasts with the BIM working group’s findings that little change is required in the fundamental building blocks of copyright law, contracts and insurance to facilitate working at Level 2 of BIM maturity. Furthermore, industry findings reveal that interoperability between parties, compatibility, security issues, data transfer and collaborative working were ranked as the top five software liability issues.",
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note = "Reference text: Al-Shammari, M. (2014) An appraisal of the protocol that was published by the construction industry council (CIC) to facilitate the use of building information modelling (BIM) on projects In: Raiden, A and Aboagye-Nimo, E (Eds) Proceedings of the 30th Annual ARCOM Conference, 1-3 Sept. 2014, UK, Portsmouth,Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 623-632. Arensman, D. and Ozbek, M. (2012), Building Information Modeling and Potential Legal Issues. International Journal of Construction Education and Research, Volume 8, Number 2, pp. 146-156. Arayici, Y., Coates, P., Koskela, L., Kagioglou, M., Usher,C.,and O'Reilly K. (2011), Technology adoption in the BIM implementation for lean architectural practice, Automation in Construction, Vol. 20, Iss. 2, March 2011, pp 189-195. British Standards Institution (2013), PAS1192:2 Specification for information management for the capital/delivery phase of construction projects using Building Information Modelling. London.:BSI Standards Limited. Bryde, D., Broquetas, M. and Volm, J., (2013), The Project Benefits of Building Information Modelling (BIM). Elsevier, pp. 971-980. buildingSMART (2012), BIM and the OPEN BIM Network Issue 1. [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.openbimnetwork.com/html/issue_1.html (Accessed November 2014]. Chao Y., (2008), Quantifying the relative importance of predictors in multiple linear regression analyses for public health studies. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 8, pp 519-529. Construction Industry Council and BIM Task Group, (2013), Building Information Model (BIM) Protocol. London: Beale and Company. Dossick, C. and Neff, G. (2010), Organizational Divisions in BIM-Enabled Commercial Construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 136, pp. 459–467. Eadie, R., Browne, M., Odeyinka, H., McKeown, C., and McNiff, S. (2013), BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis, Automation in Construction, Vol. 36, December 2013, pp 145-151. Eadie, R, Heanen, A and Hall, J (2014) Civil Engineering and the Interoperability between Building Information Modelling (BIM) and E-Procurement, In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Civil Engineering Design and Construction (Science and Practice), Varna, Bulgaria. Научно-технически съюз по строителство в България. Earley, M., 2013. Do you have documented policy...?. [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.bim-manager.net/2013/10/do-you-have-documented-policy-systems.html (Accessed November 2014). Glover, J. (2012), Legal Issues Surrounding Building Information Modelling (BIM). [WWWDocument].URL:http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=e721bd6f-77d2-4301-851b-07e8fe6a9599 (Accessed November 2014). Hamil, S., (2011), The top 10 BIM questions, [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.thenbs.com/topics/bim/articles/top10bimquestions.asp [Accessed November 2014]. Hood, N., (2013), Top 100 Construction Companies 2013. [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.theconstructionindex.co.uk/market-data/top-100-construction-companies/2013 [Accessed November 2014]. Hurtado K. and O'Connor, P. (2008). Contractural issues in the use of Building Information Modelling. International Construction Law Review, Vol. 25, Iss.3, pp. 262-272. ICE, (2013), New Engineering Contract (NEC)-use BIM with NEC contracts. London: Bell & Bain Limited. Larson, D. and Golden, K. (2008). Entering the brave new world: An introduction to contracting for BIM, William Mitchell Law Review, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp.75-108.[WWWDocument].URLhttp://open.wmitchell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1234&context=wmlr (Accessed November 2014). Lip, E. (2012), Building Information Modelling - Key Contractual Perspectives. KPK Research.[WWWDocument].URLhttp://www.kpkqs.com/download/KPK{\%}20Research{\%}20Digest{\%}20{\%}20BIM{\%}20Key{\%}20Contractual{\%}20Perspectives{\%}20-{\%}20Jan{\%}202012{\%}20-{\%}20KPK{\%}20Website.pdf(AccessedNovember 2014). Mahamadu, A., Mahdjoubi, L. and Booth, C. (2013), Challenges to BIM-Cloud Integration: Implication of Security Issues on Secure Collaboration, In: Proceedings of IEEE 5th Int. Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science(CloudCom),Bristol,2-5 Dec. 2013, Vol. 2, pp.209–214. Matthews, D., 2011. First Ever BIM Legal Case in the US. [WWW Document]. URL http://www.building.co.uk/first-ever-bim-legal-case-in-us/5019872.article (Accessed November 2014]. Mosey, D. (2014), BIM and Related Revolutions: A Review of the Cookham Wood Trial Project,[WWWDocument].URLhttp://www.scl.org.uk/bim-and-related-revolutions-review-cookham-wood-trial-project (Accessed November 2014). Olatunji,O. (2011), A preliminary review on the legal implications of BIM and model ownership, Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), Vol. 16,pg.687-696,[WWWDocument]. URL http://www.itcon.org/data/works/att/2011_40.content.01646.pdf (Accessed November 2014). Post, N., (2006). Team Members Seek Ways Out of the Building Modeling Haze. [WWWDocument].URLhttp://enr.construction.com/features/Buildings/archives/060605-1.asp [Accessed November 2014]. Sieminski, J. (2007), Liability and BIM. Best Practices AIA Pittsburgh, pp. 1-3. Sinclair, S. (2013), Danger Signals, RIBA Journal, [WWW Document]. URL http://www.ribaj.com/intelligence/danger-signals (Accessed November 2014). Succar, B. (2009), Building Information Modelling Framework: A research and delivery foundation for industry stakeholders, Automation in Construction, Vol. 18,Iss. 3, pp. 357-375. Tolson, S., (2007), Design Liability, Defective Buildings and Remedies at law 2007. IBC Construction Law, Volume I, pp. 1-67. Udom, K., (2012), Building Information Modelling, [WWW document]. URL http://www.thenbs.com/topics/bim/articles/bimMappingOutTheLegalIssues.asp (Accessed November 2014). Wheatley, B. and Brown, T. (2007) Design Responsibility and Liability: An introduction to Building Information Modelling, Construction Lawyer, Vol. 27, No.4, pp.33-54.",
year = "2015",
month = "7",
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language = "English",
isbn = "978-1-78321-071-8",
booktitle = "Unknown Host Publication",

}

Eadie, R, McLernon, T & Patton, A 2015, An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM). in Unknown Host Publication. RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, 8/07/15.

An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM). / Eadie, Robert; McLernon, Tim; Patton, Adam.

Unknown Host Publication. 2015.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM)

AU - Eadie, Robert

AU - McLernon, Tim

AU - Patton, Adam

N1 - Reference text: Al-Shammari, M. (2014) An appraisal of the protocol that was published by the construction industry council (CIC) to facilitate the use of building information modelling (BIM) on projects In: Raiden, A and Aboagye-Nimo, E (Eds) Proceedings of the 30th Annual ARCOM Conference, 1-3 Sept. 2014, UK, Portsmouth,Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 623-632. Arensman, D. and Ozbek, M. (2012), Building Information Modeling and Potential Legal Issues. International Journal of Construction Education and Research, Volume 8, Number 2, pp. 146-156. Arayici, Y., Coates, P., Koskela, L., Kagioglou, M., Usher,C.,and O'Reilly K. (2011), Technology adoption in the BIM implementation for lean architectural practice, Automation in Construction, Vol. 20, Iss. 2, March 2011, pp 189-195. British Standards Institution (2013), PAS1192:2 Specification for information management for the capital/delivery phase of construction projects using Building Information Modelling. London.:BSI Standards Limited. Bryde, D., Broquetas, M. and Volm, J., (2013), The Project Benefits of Building Information Modelling (BIM). Elsevier, pp. 971-980. buildingSMART (2012), BIM and the OPEN BIM Network Issue 1. [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.openbimnetwork.com/html/issue_1.html (Accessed November 2014]. Chao Y., (2008), Quantifying the relative importance of predictors in multiple linear regression analyses for public health studies. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 8, pp 519-529. Construction Industry Council and BIM Task Group, (2013), Building Information Model (BIM) Protocol. London: Beale and Company. Dossick, C. and Neff, G. (2010), Organizational Divisions in BIM-Enabled Commercial Construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 136, pp. 459–467. Eadie, R., Browne, M., Odeyinka, H., McKeown, C., and McNiff, S. (2013), BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis, Automation in Construction, Vol. 36, December 2013, pp 145-151. Eadie, R, Heanen, A and Hall, J (2014) Civil Engineering and the Interoperability between Building Information Modelling (BIM) and E-Procurement, In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Civil Engineering Design and Construction (Science and Practice), Varna, Bulgaria. Научно-технически съюз по строителство в България. Earley, M., 2013. Do you have documented policy...?. [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.bim-manager.net/2013/10/do-you-have-documented-policy-systems.html (Accessed November 2014). Glover, J. (2012), Legal Issues Surrounding Building Information Modelling (BIM). [WWWDocument].URL:http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=e721bd6f-77d2-4301-851b-07e8fe6a9599 (Accessed November 2014). Hamil, S., (2011), The top 10 BIM questions, [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.thenbs.com/topics/bim/articles/top10bimquestions.asp [Accessed November 2014]. Hood, N., (2013), Top 100 Construction Companies 2013. [WWW Document]. URL: http://www.theconstructionindex.co.uk/market-data/top-100-construction-companies/2013 [Accessed November 2014]. Hurtado K. and O'Connor, P. (2008). Contractural issues in the use of Building Information Modelling. International Construction Law Review, Vol. 25, Iss.3, pp. 262-272. ICE, (2013), New Engineering Contract (NEC)-use BIM with NEC contracts. London: Bell & Bain Limited. Larson, D. and Golden, K. (2008). Entering the brave new world: An introduction to contracting for BIM, William Mitchell Law Review, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp.75-108.[WWWDocument].URLhttp://open.wmitchell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1234&context=wmlr (Accessed November 2014). Lip, E. (2012), Building Information Modelling - Key Contractual Perspectives. KPK Research.[WWWDocument].URLhttp://www.kpkqs.com/download/KPK%20Research%20Digest%20%20BIM%20Key%20Contractual%20Perspectives%20-%20Jan%202012%20-%20KPK%20Website.pdf(AccessedNovember 2014). Mahamadu, A., Mahdjoubi, L. and Booth, C. (2013), Challenges to BIM-Cloud Integration: Implication of Security Issues on Secure Collaboration, In: Proceedings of IEEE 5th Int. Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science(CloudCom),Bristol,2-5 Dec. 2013, Vol. 2, pp.209–214. Matthews, D., 2011. First Ever BIM Legal Case in the US. [WWW Document]. URL http://www.building.co.uk/first-ever-bim-legal-case-in-us/5019872.article (Accessed November 2014]. Mosey, D. (2014), BIM and Related Revolutions: A Review of the Cookham Wood Trial Project,[WWWDocument].URLhttp://www.scl.org.uk/bim-and-related-revolutions-review-cookham-wood-trial-project (Accessed November 2014). Olatunji,O. (2011), A preliminary review on the legal implications of BIM and model ownership, Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), Vol. 16,pg.687-696,[WWWDocument]. URL http://www.itcon.org/data/works/att/2011_40.content.01646.pdf (Accessed November 2014). Post, N., (2006). Team Members Seek Ways Out of the Building Modeling Haze. [WWWDocument].URLhttp://enr.construction.com/features/Buildings/archives/060605-1.asp [Accessed November 2014]. Sieminski, J. (2007), Liability and BIM. Best Practices AIA Pittsburgh, pp. 1-3. Sinclair, S. (2013), Danger Signals, RIBA Journal, [WWW Document]. URL http://www.ribaj.com/intelligence/danger-signals (Accessed November 2014). Succar, B. (2009), Building Information Modelling Framework: A research and delivery foundation for industry stakeholders, Automation in Construction, Vol. 18,Iss. 3, pp. 357-375. Tolson, S., (2007), Design Liability, Defective Buildings and Remedies at law 2007. IBC Construction Law, Volume I, pp. 1-67. Udom, K., (2012), Building Information Modelling, [WWW document]. URL http://www.thenbs.com/topics/bim/articles/bimMappingOutTheLegalIssues.asp (Accessed November 2014). Wheatley, B. and Brown, T. (2007) Design Responsibility and Liability: An introduction to Building Information Modelling, Construction Lawyer, Vol. 27, No.4, pp.33-54.

PY - 2015/7/8

Y1 - 2015/7/8

N2 - The UK Government Construction Strategy stipulates all Government construction projects need collaborative Level 2 BIM incorporated by 2016. The UK Government considers this will deliver improvements. However, literature identified significant legal issues stifling BIM implementation, including Design and Software Liability. A knowledge gap exists in the ranking of these issues. A web-based survey of the top 100 UK construction companies provides empirical data. Findings revealed the top five legal issues relating to BIM adoption, in order of importance, are; Model ownership, Incorporation of BIM into the contractual relationship of the parties involved. Design liability, Reliance on data and the Evolution and responsibility of model. Design responsibility, Lack of standardisation, litigation and protocols, Collaborative working, the Role of BIM co-ordinator and Sharing of copyrighted data, are the top five ranked design liability issues. The high ranking of these issues still raises concerns and contrasts with the BIM working group’s findings that little change is required in the fundamental building blocks of copyright law, contracts and insurance to facilitate working at Level 2 of BIM maturity. Furthermore, industry findings reveal that interoperability between parties, compatibility, security issues, data transfer and collaborative working were ranked as the top five software liability issues.

AB - The UK Government Construction Strategy stipulates all Government construction projects need collaborative Level 2 BIM incorporated by 2016. The UK Government considers this will deliver improvements. However, literature identified significant legal issues stifling BIM implementation, including Design and Software Liability. A knowledge gap exists in the ranking of these issues. A web-based survey of the top 100 UK construction companies provides empirical data. Findings revealed the top five legal issues relating to BIM adoption, in order of importance, are; Model ownership, Incorporation of BIM into the contractual relationship of the parties involved. Design liability, Reliance on data and the Evolution and responsibility of model. Design responsibility, Lack of standardisation, litigation and protocols, Collaborative working, the Role of BIM co-ordinator and Sharing of copyrighted data, are the top five ranked design liability issues. The high ranking of these issues still raises concerns and contrasts with the BIM working group’s findings that little change is required in the fundamental building blocks of copyright law, contracts and insurance to facilitate working at Level 2 of BIM maturity. Furthermore, industry findings reveal that interoperability between parties, compatibility, security issues, data transfer and collaborative working were ranked as the top five software liability issues.

KW - BIM

KW - Legal issues

KW - Ranking

KW - Government procurement.

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 978-1-78321-071-8

BT - Unknown Host Publication

ER -