An inter-comparison exercise on CFD model capabilities to predict a hydrogen explosion in a simulated vehicle refuelling environment
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The paper describes the comparison of simulations of a hydrogen explosion experiment in an environment simulating a vehicle refuelling station. The exercise was performed in 2007 within the European Commission-funded Network of Excellence ``Hydrogen Safety as an Energy Carrier'' (http://www.hysafe.org), which facilitates the safe introduction of hydrogen technologies and infrastructure. The experiment in a mock-up of a hydrogen refuelling station was conducted jointly by Shell Global Solutions (UK) and the Health and Safety Laboratory (UK) in order to study the potential hazards and consequences associated with a hydrogen-air mixture explosion. The ``worst-case'' scenario of a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture explosion was offered to the network partners for this simulation exercise. Simulations were conducted by a total of seven partners using different models and numerical codes with the intention of predicting/reproducing pressure dynamics in different locations and of evaluating the performance of different combustion codes and models in realistic large-scale conditions. The paper briefly details the models and numerical codes used, and presents the simulated pressure transients obtained by the partners in comparison with the experimental pressure records. The comparative model analysis was made based on achieved simulation results, where the simulated maximum over-pressure and the characteristic rate of pressure rise were treated as major output parameters. A contribution to hydrogen safety was made in the form of a description of the models, their performance and an analysis of the results for their cross-fertilisation where possible. (C) 2009 International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.