An Exploratory Framework for Analysing International Retail Learning

M Palmer, Barry Quinn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It is argued that international retail research has overlooked an essential component of the retail internationalization process, notably learning. This paper proposes an exploratory framework that enables the application of learning theory to the study of international retailing. The paper provides a meaningful starting point for developing an overarching framework which would represent one sort of re-conceptualization of the retail internationalization process, and arguably a new perspective for reinterpreting, re-evaluating and refining the existing literature on international retailing. Alongside this exploratory framework, we present a series of research propositions that might serve as an agenda for research into international retail learning. The paper concludes with a summary of the key themes and ways in which the area of international retail learning may be investigated.
LanguageEnglish
Pages27-52
JournalThe International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Fingerprint

Retail
International retailing
Internationalization process
Retail internationalization
Conceptualization
International research
Learning theory
Agenda

Cite this

@article{2c28bc5b1a88438fba3465b9f7357732,
title = "An Exploratory Framework for Analysing International Retail Learning",
abstract = "It is argued that international retail research has overlooked an essential component of the retail internationalization process, notably learning. This paper proposes an exploratory framework that enables the application of learning theory to the study of international retailing. The paper provides a meaningful starting point for developing an overarching framework which would represent one sort of re-conceptualization of the retail internationalization process, and arguably a new perspective for reinterpreting, re-evaluating and refining the existing literature on international retailing. Alongside this exploratory framework, we present a series of research propositions that might serve as an agenda for research into international retail learning. The paper concludes with a summary of the key themes and ways in which the area of international retail learning may be investigated.",
author = "M Palmer and Barry Quinn",
note = "Reference text: Akehurst, G. & Alexander, N. (1995) Developing a framework for the study of the internationalisation of retailing, The Service Industries Journal, 15(4), pp. 204–209. Alexander, N. (1990) Retailers and international markets: motives for expansion, International Marketing Review, 7(4), pp. 75–85. Alexander, N. (1995) UK retail expansion in North America and Europe – a strategic dilemma, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2(2), pp. 75–81. Alexander, N. (1997) International Retailing (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers). Alexander, N. & Myers, H. (2000) The retail internationalisation process, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 334–353. Alexander, N. & Quinn, B. (2002) International retail divestment, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 30(2), pp. 112–125. Argyris, C. (1977) Double loop learning in organizations, Harvard Business Review 55(5), pp. 115–124. Argyris, C. & Schon, D. (1978) Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley). Argyris, C. & Schon, D. (1996) Organizational Learning 11: Theory, Method, and Practice (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley). Arrow, K. (1962) The implications of learning-by-doing, Review of Economic Studies, 29, pp. 166–170. Bateson, G. (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind (New York: Ballantine). Bengtsson, A., Elg, U. & Johansson, U. (1999) The process of internationalisation and how Swedish food retailers perceive their domestic supplier relations, 10th International Conference on the Distributive Trades, Institute for Retail Studies, University of Stirling, 26–28 August, pp. 412–420. Burt, S. (1991) Trends in the internationalisation of grocery retailing: the European experience, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 1(4), pp. 487–515. Burt, S. (1994) Carrefour: internationalising innovation, in: P. J. McGoldrick (Ed.) Cases in Retail Management, pp. 154–164 (London: Pitman). Burt, S. & Carralero-Encinas, J. (2000) The role of store image in retail internationalisation, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 433–453. 48 M. Palmer & B. Quinn Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 Burt, S. & Sparks, L. (2001) The implications of Wal-Mart’s takeover of Asda, Environment and Planning A, 33, pp. 1463–1487. Burt, S. L. & Sparks, L. (2002) Corporate branding, Internationalisation and the retailer as a brand, Corporate Reputation Review, 5(2/3), pp. 194–204. Burt, S., Mellahi, K., Jackson, T. P. & Sparks, L. (2002) Retail internationalisation and retail failure: issues from the case of Marks and Spencer, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 12(2), pp. 191–219. Burt, S. L., Dawson, J. & Sparks, L. (2003) Failure in international retailing: research propositions, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 13(4), pp. 355–373. Cangelosi, V. & Dill, W. (1965) Organizational learning: observations towards a theory, Administrative Science Quarterly, 10, pp. 175–203. Clarke, I. & Hallsworth, A. (1994) Inter-organisational networks and location investment decisions: a Canadian example, The International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 22(6), pp. 38–45. Clarke, I. & Rimmer, P. (1997) The anatomy of retail internationalisation: Daimaru’s decision to invest in Melbourne, Australia, The Service Industries Journal, 17(3), pp. 361–382. Clarke-Hill, C. M., Robinson, T. & Bailey, J. (1998) Skills and competence transfers in European retail alliances: a comparison between alliances and joint ventures, European Business Review, 98(6), pp. 300– 310. Cohen, M. D. & Sproull, L. S. (1996) Organizational Learning (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage). Collins, A. & Burt, S. (2000) Dependence in manufacturer–retailer relationships: the potential implications of retail internationalisation for indigenous food manufacturers, Journal of Marketing Management, 15, pp. 583–585. Collins, A. & Burt, S. (2002) Market sanctions, monitoring and vertical coordination within retailer– manufacturer relationships: the case of retail brand suppliers, European Journal of Marketing, 37(5), pp. 668–689. Cotter, J., Doherty, A. M. and McCaffery, K. (1999) An examination of the stock market’s reaction to the performance indicators of UK based international retail firms, 10th International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, 26–28, August, pp.431–438. Cyert, R. & March, J. (1963) A Behavioural Theory of the Firm (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall). Dawson, J. A. (1993) The internationalisation of retailing, in: R. D. F. Bromley & C. J. Thomas (Eds) Retail Change and Contemporary Issues, pp.15–40 (London: ULC Press). Dawson, J. A. (1994) Internationalisation of retailing operations, The Journal of Marketing Management, 10, pp. 267–282. Dawson, J. A. (2001) Strategy and opportunism in European retail internationalization, British Journal of Management, 12, pp. 253–266. Dodgson, M. (1993) Organizational learning: a review of some literatures, Organizational Studies, 14(3), pp. 375–394. Doherty, A. M. (2000) Factors influencing international retailers market entry mode strategy: qualitative evidence from the UK fashion sector, Journal of Marketing Management, 16(1–3), pp. 223–245. Doherty, A. M. & Quinn, B. (1998) Implication of agency theory for theoretical explanation of international retail franchising, Marketing and Retailing Working Paper Series, Faculty of Business and Management, pp. 1–32. Doherty, A. M., McCaffery, K. & Finney, M. (1998) The internationalisation of UK retail firms: a financial perspective, Marketing and Retail Working Paper Series, University of Ulster, pp. 1–17. Dunning, J. (1981) International Production and Multinational Enterprise (London: Allen and Unwin). Dupuis, M. & Prime, N. (1996) Business distance and global retailing: a model for analysis of key success and failure factors, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 24(1), pp. 30–38. Evans, W. (1996) Retail border wars II: Canadian cases in international retailing, CSCA, Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity, Ryerson Polytechnic University, pp. 1–22. Evans, J. & Mavondo, F. T. (2002) Psychic distance and organizational performance: an empirical examination of international retail operations, Journal of International Business Studies, 33, pp. 515– 525. Evans, W., Lane, H. & O’Grady, S. (1992) Border Crossings: Doing Business in the US (Scarborough: Prentice Hall Canada). Evans, J., Treadgold, A. & Mavondo, F. T. (2000) Psychic distance and the performance of international retailers. a suggested theoretical framework, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 373–391. Analysing International Retail Learning 49 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 Fernie, J. (1992) Distribution strategies of European retailers, European Journal of Marketing, 26(819), pp. 35–47. Fernie, J. (1994) Quick response: an international perspective, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 24(6), pp. 38–46. Fernie, J. (1995) International comparisons of supply chain management in grocery retailing, The Service Industries Journal, 15(4), pp. 134–147. Foil, C. M. & Lyles, M. A. (1985) Organizational learning, Academy of Management Review, 10(4), pp. 803–813. Garvin, D. (1993) Building a learning organization, Harvard Business Review, 71(4), pp. 78–91. Goldman, A. (1974) Growth of large food stores in developing countries, Journal of Retailing, 50(2), pp. 139–189. Goldman, A. (1981) Transfer of a retailing technology into the Less Developed Countries: the supermarket case, Journal of Retailing, 57, pp. 5–29. Ha˚ kansson, H., Havila, V. & Pedersen, A-C. (1999) Learning in networks, Industrial Marketing Management, 28, pp. 443–452. Hallsworth, A. (1992) Retail internationalisation: contingency and context?, European Journal of Marketing, 26(819), pp. 25–34. Hedberg, B. L. (1981) How organizations learn and unlearn, in: P. C. Nystrom, & W. H. Starbucks (Eds) Handbook of Organizational Design, Vol.1 (York: Oxford University Press). Henderson, S. (1997) Black swans don’t fly double loops: the limits of the learning organization?, The Learning Organization, 4(3), pp. 99–105. Hildebrand, T. (1989) An investigation of retailers entering and adopting to the US market. Unpublished PhD. thesis, University of Western Ontario, London. Hinchcliffe, T. F. (1999) A study of how one company uses organizational learning to implement its strategy. Unpublished PhD. thesis, Temple University. Hosley, S., Miller, L., Twi, A., Levy, F. & Tan, D. S. K. (1994) The quest for the competitive learning organization, Management Decision, 32(6), pp. 5–15. Howard, E. & Dragun, D. (2002) Retailer internationalisation and the VIP project, Full Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Retail Conference 2002, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 30 October – 2 November, pp. 22–35. Huber, G. (1991) Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literatures, Organizational Science, 2(1), pp. 88–115. Jackson, G. I. (1976) British retailer expansion into Europe. Unpublished PhD. thesis, UMIST, Manchester. Johanson, J., and Vahlne, J. E. (1977) The internationalization process of the firm – a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments, Journal of International Business Studies, 8, pp. 22–32. Kacker, M. P. (1985) Transatlantic Trends-in Retailing Takeovers and Flow of Know How (Westport, CT: Quorum Books). Kacker, M. (1988) International flow of retailing know-how: bridging the technology gap in distribution, Journal of Retailing, 64(1), pp. 41–67. Lane, H. W. & Hildebrand, T. (1990) How to survive in the US retail markets, Business Quarterly, 54, pp. 60–66. Levitt, B. & March, J. G. (1988) Organizational learning, in: W. R. Scott & J. Blake (Eds), Annual Review of Sociology, Palo Alto, CA Annual Reviews, 14, pp. 319–340. Lord, D., Moran, W., Parker, T. & Sparks, L. (1989) Retailing on three continents: the discount foodstore operations of Albert Gubay, The International Journal of Retailing, 4(3), pp. 1–53. March, J. G. & Olsen, J. P. (1976) The uncertainty of the past organizational learning under ambiguity, European Journal of Political Research, 3, pp. 147–171. Mellahi, K., Jackson, T. P. & Sparks, L. (2002) An exploratory study into failure in successful organizations: the case of Marks and Spencer, British Journal of Management 13, pp. 15–29. McGoldrick, P. J. (1998) Spatial and temporal shifts in the development of international retail images, Journal of Business Research, 42, pp. 189–196. McGoldrick, P. J. & Blair, D. (1995) International market appraisal and positioning, in: P. J. McGoldrick, & G. Davies (Eds) International Retailing: Trends and Strategies (London: Pitman). 50 M. Palmer & B. Quinn Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 McGoldrick, P. J. & Fryer, E. (1993) Organizational culture and the internationalisation of retailing, Seventh International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, University of Stirling, 6–8 September. McGoldrick, P. J. & Ho, S. (1992) International positioning: Japanese department stores in Hong Kong, European Journal of Marketing, 26, pp. 61–73. Murray, P. (2001) Developing sustainable learning strategies in the construction industry. Unpublished PhD. thesis, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur. Murray, P. (2002) Cycles of organizational learning: a conceptual approach, Management Decision, 40(3), pp. 239–247. Muskett, D. (2000) Sainsbury’s and Shaw’s: reflections on making an acquisition a reality, in: B. M. Oldfield, R. A. Schmidt, M. Kirkup, C. Hart. & I. Clarke (Eds) Contemporary Cases in Retail Operations Management (London: Macmillan Press). Myers, H. A. (1996) Internationalisation: the impact of the European Union, a study of the food retail sector. Unpublished PhD. thesis, Department of Management Studies, University of Surrey. Myers, H. & Alexander, N. (1996) European food retailers, evaluation of global markets, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 24(6), pp. 34–43. Nevis, E. C., DiBella, A. J. & Gould, J. M. (1995) Understanding organizations as learning systems, Sloan Management Review (Winter), pp. 73–85. O’Grady, S. & Lane, H. W. (1996) The psychic distance paradox, Journal of International Business Studies, 27(2), pp. 309–334. Pache, G. (1998) A transactional approach to global sourcing application to French food retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 26(2), pp. 88–96. Palmer, M. (2002) Corporate interaction and learning during the retail internationalization process: a study of multinational retailer expansion. Unpublished PhD, Faculty of Business and Management, University of Ulster. Palmer, M. (2004) International retail restructuring and divestment: the experience of Tesco, Journal of Marketing Management, 20, pp. 1075–1105. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2001) The role and influence of the financial institutions in the retailer internationalization process: a qualitative study of investment banks, Proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, Tilburg, The Netherlands, 27–29 June. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2003a) The strategic role of investment banks in the retail internationalization process: is this venture marketing?, The European Journal of Marketing, 37(10), pp. 1391–1408. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2003b) Global shareholder activism, retailer relationships and the internationalization of retailing, 6th Annual Retail Strategy and Consumer Decision Research Symposium, Society for Marketing Advances, New Orleans. 4–8 November. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2003c) International divestment in food retailing: a case study of Ahold, The Seventh Triennial AMS/ACRA Retailing Conference (Sponsored by the Academy of Marketing Science and the American Collegiate Retailing Association) Columbus, Ohio USA, 6–9 November. Parker, A. J. (1986) Tesco leaves Ireland, Retail and Distribution, (May/June), pp.16–20. Pelligrini, L. (1991) The internationalisation of retailing and 1992 Europe, Journal of Marketing Channels, 1(2), pp. 3–27. Pelligrini, L. (1994) Alternatives for growth and internationalization in retailing, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 4(2), pp. 121–148. Pellow, M. T. (1990a) Physical distribution in international retailing, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 18(2), pp. 12–15. Pellow, M. T. (1990b) The internationalization of retailing – the impact on physical distribution, in: J. Fernie (Ed.) Retail Distribution Management (London: Kogan Page). Pfeffer, J. and Sutton, R. I. (2000) The Knowing-Doing Gap: How Smart Companies Turn Knowledge Into Action (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press). Prime, N. (1999) IKEA: international development’, in: M. Dupuis & J. Dawson European Cases in Retailing, pp. 33–48 (Oxford: Blackwell Publications). Quinn, B. (1999) The temporal context of UK retailers’ motives for international expansion, The Service Industries Journal, 19(2), pp. 102–117. Quinn, B. & Doherty, A. M. (2000) Power and control in international retail franchising – evidence from theory and practice, International Marketing Review, 17(4), pp. 354–372. Analysing International Retail Learning 51 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 Salmon, W. & Tordjman, A. (1989) The Internationalisation of retailing, International Journal of Retailing, 4(2), pp. 3–16. Senge, P. (1990) The Fifth Discipline (New York: Doubleday). Shackleton, R. (1996a) Retailer internationalization: a culturally constructed phenomenon, in: N. Wrigley & M. Lowe (Eds) Retailing, Consumption and Capital: Towards the Retail Geography (London: Longman Group Limited). Shackleton, R. (1996b) Collisions of corporate culture: UK food retail investment in the USA. Unpublished PhD. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Southampton. Shackleton, R. (1998) Exploring corporate culture and strategy: Sainsbury at home and abroad during the early to mid 1990s, Environment and Planning A, 30, pp. 921–940. Sparks, L. (1995) Reciprocal retail internationalisation: the Southland Corporation, ltoYokado and 7- Eleven Convenience Stores, The Service Industries Journal, 15(4), pp. 57–96. Sternquist, B. (1997) International expansion of US retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25(8), pp. 262–268. Sternquist, B. (1998) International Retailing (New York: Fairchild Publications). Tordjman, A. (1988) The French hypermarket: could it be developed in the States?, Retail and Distribution Management, 16(4), pp. 14–16. Treadgold, A. (1991) The emerging internationalization of retailing: present status and future challenges, Irish Marketing Review, 5(2), pp. 11–27. Tsang, E. W. K. (1999) Internationalisation as a learning process: Singapore MNCs in China’, Academy of Management Executive, 13(1), pp. 91–101. Tsang, E. W. K. (2002) Acquiring knowledge by foreign partners from international joint ventures in a transition economy: learning-by-doing and learning myopia, Strategic Management Journal, 23(9), pp. 835–854. Vida, I. (2000) An empirical inquiry into international expansion of US retailers, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 454–475. Vida, I. & Fairhurst, A. (1998) International expansion of retail firms: a theoretical approach for future investigations, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 5(3), pp. 143–151. Warnaby, G. (1994) Laura Ashley – an international retail brand, Management Decision, 32(3), pp. 42–48. Whitehead, M. (1992) Internationalization of retailing: developing new perspectives, European Journal of Marketing, 26, pp. 74–79. Whysall, P. (1997) Interwar retail internationalization: Boots under American ownership, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 7(2), pp. 157–169. Williams, D. E. (1991a) Retailer internationalisation. Unpublished PhD. thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff. Williams, D. E. (1991b) Differential firm advantages and retailer internationalisation, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 19(4), pp. 3–12. Williams, D. E. (1992) Retailer internationalization: an empirical inquiry, European Journal of Marketing, 26 (8/9), pp. 8–29. Wrigley, N. (1997a) British food retail capital in the USA – Part 1: Sainsbury and the Shaw’s experience, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25 (1), pp. 7–21. Wrigley, N. (1997b) British food retail capital in the USA – Part 2: Sainsbury and the Shaw’s experience, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25(2), pp. 48–58. Wrigley, N. (1998) European retail giants and the post-LBO reconfiguration of US food retailing, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 8(2), pp. 127–147. Wrigley, N. (2000) Strategic market behaviour in the internationalization of food retailing: interpreting the Third Wave of Sainsbury’s US diversification, European Journal of Marketing, (34), pp. 891–918. Wrigley, N. (2002) The landscape of pan-European food retail consolidation, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 30(2), pp. 81–91. Wrigley, N. & Currah, A. (2003) The stresses of retail internationalization: lessons from Royal Ahold’s experience in Latin America, International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, 13, pp. 221–243. 52 M. Palmer & B. Quinn Downloaded by",
year = "2005",
doi = "10.1080/0959396042000299111",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "27--52",
journal = "International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research",
issn = "0959-3969",
number = "1",

}

An Exploratory Framework for Analysing International Retail Learning. / Palmer, M; Quinn, Barry.

In: The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2005, p. 27-52.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - An Exploratory Framework for Analysing International Retail Learning

AU - Palmer, M

AU - Quinn, Barry

N1 - Reference text: Akehurst, G. & Alexander, N. (1995) Developing a framework for the study of the internationalisation of retailing, The Service Industries Journal, 15(4), pp. 204–209. Alexander, N. (1990) Retailers and international markets: motives for expansion, International Marketing Review, 7(4), pp. 75–85. Alexander, N. (1995) UK retail expansion in North America and Europe – a strategic dilemma, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2(2), pp. 75–81. Alexander, N. (1997) International Retailing (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers). Alexander, N. & Myers, H. (2000) The retail internationalisation process, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 334–353. Alexander, N. & Quinn, B. (2002) International retail divestment, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 30(2), pp. 112–125. Argyris, C. (1977) Double loop learning in organizations, Harvard Business Review 55(5), pp. 115–124. Argyris, C. & Schon, D. (1978) Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley). Argyris, C. & Schon, D. (1996) Organizational Learning 11: Theory, Method, and Practice (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley). Arrow, K. (1962) The implications of learning-by-doing, Review of Economic Studies, 29, pp. 166–170. Bateson, G. (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind (New York: Ballantine). Bengtsson, A., Elg, U. & Johansson, U. (1999) The process of internationalisation and how Swedish food retailers perceive their domestic supplier relations, 10th International Conference on the Distributive Trades, Institute for Retail Studies, University of Stirling, 26–28 August, pp. 412–420. Burt, S. (1991) Trends in the internationalisation of grocery retailing: the European experience, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 1(4), pp. 487–515. Burt, S. (1994) Carrefour: internationalising innovation, in: P. J. McGoldrick (Ed.) Cases in Retail Management, pp. 154–164 (London: Pitman). Burt, S. & Carralero-Encinas, J. (2000) The role of store image in retail internationalisation, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 433–453. 48 M. Palmer & B. Quinn Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 Burt, S. & Sparks, L. (2001) The implications of Wal-Mart’s takeover of Asda, Environment and Planning A, 33, pp. 1463–1487. Burt, S. L. & Sparks, L. (2002) Corporate branding, Internationalisation and the retailer as a brand, Corporate Reputation Review, 5(2/3), pp. 194–204. Burt, S., Mellahi, K., Jackson, T. P. & Sparks, L. (2002) Retail internationalisation and retail failure: issues from the case of Marks and Spencer, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 12(2), pp. 191–219. Burt, S. L., Dawson, J. & Sparks, L. (2003) Failure in international retailing: research propositions, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 13(4), pp. 355–373. Cangelosi, V. & Dill, W. (1965) Organizational learning: observations towards a theory, Administrative Science Quarterly, 10, pp. 175–203. Clarke, I. & Hallsworth, A. (1994) Inter-organisational networks and location investment decisions: a Canadian example, The International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 22(6), pp. 38–45. Clarke, I. & Rimmer, P. (1997) The anatomy of retail internationalisation: Daimaru’s decision to invest in Melbourne, Australia, The Service Industries Journal, 17(3), pp. 361–382. Clarke-Hill, C. M., Robinson, T. & Bailey, J. (1998) Skills and competence transfers in European retail alliances: a comparison between alliances and joint ventures, European Business Review, 98(6), pp. 300– 310. Cohen, M. D. & Sproull, L. S. (1996) Organizational Learning (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage). Collins, A. & Burt, S. (2000) Dependence in manufacturer–retailer relationships: the potential implications of retail internationalisation for indigenous food manufacturers, Journal of Marketing Management, 15, pp. 583–585. Collins, A. & Burt, S. (2002) Market sanctions, monitoring and vertical coordination within retailer– manufacturer relationships: the case of retail brand suppliers, European Journal of Marketing, 37(5), pp. 668–689. Cotter, J., Doherty, A. M. and McCaffery, K. (1999) An examination of the stock market’s reaction to the performance indicators of UK based international retail firms, 10th International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, 26–28, August, pp.431–438. Cyert, R. & March, J. (1963) A Behavioural Theory of the Firm (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall). Dawson, J. A. (1993) The internationalisation of retailing, in: R. D. F. Bromley & C. J. Thomas (Eds) Retail Change and Contemporary Issues, pp.15–40 (London: ULC Press). Dawson, J. A. (1994) Internationalisation of retailing operations, The Journal of Marketing Management, 10, pp. 267–282. Dawson, J. A. (2001) Strategy and opportunism in European retail internationalization, British Journal of Management, 12, pp. 253–266. Dodgson, M. (1993) Organizational learning: a review of some literatures, Organizational Studies, 14(3), pp. 375–394. Doherty, A. M. (2000) Factors influencing international retailers market entry mode strategy: qualitative evidence from the UK fashion sector, Journal of Marketing Management, 16(1–3), pp. 223–245. Doherty, A. M. & Quinn, B. (1998) Implication of agency theory for theoretical explanation of international retail franchising, Marketing and Retailing Working Paper Series, Faculty of Business and Management, pp. 1–32. Doherty, A. M., McCaffery, K. & Finney, M. (1998) The internationalisation of UK retail firms: a financial perspective, Marketing and Retail Working Paper Series, University of Ulster, pp. 1–17. Dunning, J. (1981) International Production and Multinational Enterprise (London: Allen and Unwin). Dupuis, M. & Prime, N. (1996) Business distance and global retailing: a model for analysis of key success and failure factors, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 24(1), pp. 30–38. Evans, W. (1996) Retail border wars II: Canadian cases in international retailing, CSCA, Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity, Ryerson Polytechnic University, pp. 1–22. Evans, J. & Mavondo, F. T. (2002) Psychic distance and organizational performance: an empirical examination of international retail operations, Journal of International Business Studies, 33, pp. 515– 525. Evans, W., Lane, H. & O’Grady, S. (1992) Border Crossings: Doing Business in the US (Scarborough: Prentice Hall Canada). Evans, J., Treadgold, A. & Mavondo, F. T. (2000) Psychic distance and the performance of international retailers. a suggested theoretical framework, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 373–391. Analysing International Retail Learning 49 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 Fernie, J. (1992) Distribution strategies of European retailers, European Journal of Marketing, 26(819), pp. 35–47. Fernie, J. (1994) Quick response: an international perspective, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 24(6), pp. 38–46. Fernie, J. (1995) International comparisons of supply chain management in grocery retailing, The Service Industries Journal, 15(4), pp. 134–147. Foil, C. M. & Lyles, M. A. (1985) Organizational learning, Academy of Management Review, 10(4), pp. 803–813. Garvin, D. (1993) Building a learning organization, Harvard Business Review, 71(4), pp. 78–91. Goldman, A. (1974) Growth of large food stores in developing countries, Journal of Retailing, 50(2), pp. 139–189. Goldman, A. (1981) Transfer of a retailing technology into the Less Developed Countries: the supermarket case, Journal of Retailing, 57, pp. 5–29. Ha˚ kansson, H., Havila, V. & Pedersen, A-C. (1999) Learning in networks, Industrial Marketing Management, 28, pp. 443–452. Hallsworth, A. (1992) Retail internationalisation: contingency and context?, European Journal of Marketing, 26(819), pp. 25–34. Hedberg, B. L. (1981) How organizations learn and unlearn, in: P. C. Nystrom, & W. H. Starbucks (Eds) Handbook of Organizational Design, Vol.1 (York: Oxford University Press). Henderson, S. (1997) Black swans don’t fly double loops: the limits of the learning organization?, The Learning Organization, 4(3), pp. 99–105. Hildebrand, T. (1989) An investigation of retailers entering and adopting to the US market. Unpublished PhD. thesis, University of Western Ontario, London. Hinchcliffe, T. F. (1999) A study of how one company uses organizational learning to implement its strategy. Unpublished PhD. thesis, Temple University. Hosley, S., Miller, L., Twi, A., Levy, F. & Tan, D. S. K. (1994) The quest for the competitive learning organization, Management Decision, 32(6), pp. 5–15. Howard, E. & Dragun, D. (2002) Retailer internationalisation and the VIP project, Full Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Retail Conference 2002, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 30 October – 2 November, pp. 22–35. Huber, G. (1991) Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literatures, Organizational Science, 2(1), pp. 88–115. Jackson, G. I. (1976) British retailer expansion into Europe. Unpublished PhD. thesis, UMIST, Manchester. Johanson, J., and Vahlne, J. E. (1977) The internationalization process of the firm – a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments, Journal of International Business Studies, 8, pp. 22–32. Kacker, M. P. (1985) Transatlantic Trends-in Retailing Takeovers and Flow of Know How (Westport, CT: Quorum Books). Kacker, M. (1988) International flow of retailing know-how: bridging the technology gap in distribution, Journal of Retailing, 64(1), pp. 41–67. Lane, H. W. & Hildebrand, T. (1990) How to survive in the US retail markets, Business Quarterly, 54, pp. 60–66. Levitt, B. & March, J. G. (1988) Organizational learning, in: W. R. Scott & J. Blake (Eds), Annual Review of Sociology, Palo Alto, CA Annual Reviews, 14, pp. 319–340. Lord, D., Moran, W., Parker, T. & Sparks, L. (1989) Retailing on three continents: the discount foodstore operations of Albert Gubay, The International Journal of Retailing, 4(3), pp. 1–53. March, J. G. & Olsen, J. P. (1976) The uncertainty of the past organizational learning under ambiguity, European Journal of Political Research, 3, pp. 147–171. Mellahi, K., Jackson, T. P. & Sparks, L. (2002) An exploratory study into failure in successful organizations: the case of Marks and Spencer, British Journal of Management 13, pp. 15–29. McGoldrick, P. J. (1998) Spatial and temporal shifts in the development of international retail images, Journal of Business Research, 42, pp. 189–196. McGoldrick, P. J. & Blair, D. (1995) International market appraisal and positioning, in: P. J. McGoldrick, & G. Davies (Eds) International Retailing: Trends and Strategies (London: Pitman). 50 M. Palmer & B. Quinn Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 McGoldrick, P. J. & Fryer, E. (1993) Organizational culture and the internationalisation of retailing, Seventh International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, University of Stirling, 6–8 September. McGoldrick, P. J. & Ho, S. (1992) International positioning: Japanese department stores in Hong Kong, European Journal of Marketing, 26, pp. 61–73. Murray, P. (2001) Developing sustainable learning strategies in the construction industry. Unpublished PhD. thesis, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur. Murray, P. (2002) Cycles of organizational learning: a conceptual approach, Management Decision, 40(3), pp. 239–247. Muskett, D. (2000) Sainsbury’s and Shaw’s: reflections on making an acquisition a reality, in: B. M. Oldfield, R. A. Schmidt, M. Kirkup, C. Hart. & I. Clarke (Eds) Contemporary Cases in Retail Operations Management (London: Macmillan Press). Myers, H. A. (1996) Internationalisation: the impact of the European Union, a study of the food retail sector. Unpublished PhD. thesis, Department of Management Studies, University of Surrey. Myers, H. & Alexander, N. (1996) European food retailers, evaluation of global markets, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 24(6), pp. 34–43. Nevis, E. C., DiBella, A. J. & Gould, J. M. (1995) Understanding organizations as learning systems, Sloan Management Review (Winter), pp. 73–85. O’Grady, S. & Lane, H. W. (1996) The psychic distance paradox, Journal of International Business Studies, 27(2), pp. 309–334. Pache, G. (1998) A transactional approach to global sourcing application to French food retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 26(2), pp. 88–96. Palmer, M. (2002) Corporate interaction and learning during the retail internationalization process: a study of multinational retailer expansion. Unpublished PhD, Faculty of Business and Management, University of Ulster. Palmer, M. (2004) International retail restructuring and divestment: the experience of Tesco, Journal of Marketing Management, 20, pp. 1075–1105. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2001) The role and influence of the financial institutions in the retailer internationalization process: a qualitative study of investment banks, Proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, Tilburg, The Netherlands, 27–29 June. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2003a) The strategic role of investment banks in the retail internationalization process: is this venture marketing?, The European Journal of Marketing, 37(10), pp. 1391–1408. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2003b) Global shareholder activism, retailer relationships and the internationalization of retailing, 6th Annual Retail Strategy and Consumer Decision Research Symposium, Society for Marketing Advances, New Orleans. 4–8 November. Palmer, M. & Quinn, B. (2003c) International divestment in food retailing: a case study of Ahold, The Seventh Triennial AMS/ACRA Retailing Conference (Sponsored by the Academy of Marketing Science and the American Collegiate Retailing Association) Columbus, Ohio USA, 6–9 November. Parker, A. J. (1986) Tesco leaves Ireland, Retail and Distribution, (May/June), pp.16–20. Pelligrini, L. (1991) The internationalisation of retailing and 1992 Europe, Journal of Marketing Channels, 1(2), pp. 3–27. Pelligrini, L. (1994) Alternatives for growth and internationalization in retailing, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 4(2), pp. 121–148. Pellow, M. T. (1990a) Physical distribution in international retailing, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 18(2), pp. 12–15. Pellow, M. T. (1990b) The internationalization of retailing – the impact on physical distribution, in: J. Fernie (Ed.) Retail Distribution Management (London: Kogan Page). Pfeffer, J. and Sutton, R. I. (2000) The Knowing-Doing Gap: How Smart Companies Turn Knowledge Into Action (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press). Prime, N. (1999) IKEA: international development’, in: M. Dupuis & J. Dawson European Cases in Retailing, pp. 33–48 (Oxford: Blackwell Publications). Quinn, B. (1999) The temporal context of UK retailers’ motives for international expansion, The Service Industries Journal, 19(2), pp. 102–117. Quinn, B. & Doherty, A. M. (2000) Power and control in international retail franchising – evidence from theory and practice, International Marketing Review, 17(4), pp. 354–372. Analysing International Retail Learning 51 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 08:27 13 June 2013 Salmon, W. & Tordjman, A. (1989) The Internationalisation of retailing, International Journal of Retailing, 4(2), pp. 3–16. Senge, P. (1990) The Fifth Discipline (New York: Doubleday). Shackleton, R. (1996a) Retailer internationalization: a culturally constructed phenomenon, in: N. Wrigley & M. Lowe (Eds) Retailing, Consumption and Capital: Towards the Retail Geography (London: Longman Group Limited). Shackleton, R. (1996b) Collisions of corporate culture: UK food retail investment in the USA. Unpublished PhD. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Southampton. Shackleton, R. (1998) Exploring corporate culture and strategy: Sainsbury at home and abroad during the early to mid 1990s, Environment and Planning A, 30, pp. 921–940. Sparks, L. (1995) Reciprocal retail internationalisation: the Southland Corporation, ltoYokado and 7- Eleven Convenience Stores, The Service Industries Journal, 15(4), pp. 57–96. Sternquist, B. (1997) International expansion of US retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25(8), pp. 262–268. Sternquist, B. (1998) International Retailing (New York: Fairchild Publications). Tordjman, A. (1988) The French hypermarket: could it be developed in the States?, Retail and Distribution Management, 16(4), pp. 14–16. Treadgold, A. (1991) The emerging internationalization of retailing: present status and future challenges, Irish Marketing Review, 5(2), pp. 11–27. Tsang, E. W. K. (1999) Internationalisation as a learning process: Singapore MNCs in China’, Academy of Management Executive, 13(1), pp. 91–101. Tsang, E. W. K. (2002) Acquiring knowledge by foreign partners from international joint ventures in a transition economy: learning-by-doing and learning myopia, Strategic Management Journal, 23(9), pp. 835–854. Vida, I. (2000) An empirical inquiry into international expansion of US retailers, International Marketing Review, 17(4/5), pp. 454–475. Vida, I. & Fairhurst, A. (1998) International expansion of retail firms: a theoretical approach for future investigations, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 5(3), pp. 143–151. Warnaby, G. (1994) Laura Ashley – an international retail brand, Management Decision, 32(3), pp. 42–48. Whitehead, M. (1992) Internationalization of retailing: developing new perspectives, European Journal of Marketing, 26, pp. 74–79. Whysall, P. (1997) Interwar retail internationalization: Boots under American ownership, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 7(2), pp. 157–169. Williams, D. E. (1991a) Retailer internationalisation. Unpublished PhD. thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff. Williams, D. E. (1991b) Differential firm advantages and retailer internationalisation, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 19(4), pp. 3–12. Williams, D. E. (1992) Retailer internationalization: an empirical inquiry, European Journal of Marketing, 26 (8/9), pp. 8–29. Wrigley, N. (1997a) British food retail capital in the USA – Part 1: Sainsbury and the Shaw’s experience, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25 (1), pp. 7–21. Wrigley, N. (1997b) British food retail capital in the USA – Part 2: Sainsbury and the Shaw’s experience, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25(2), pp. 48–58. Wrigley, N. (1998) European retail giants and the post-LBO reconfiguration of US food retailing, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 8(2), pp. 127–147. Wrigley, N. (2000) Strategic market behaviour in the internationalization of food retailing: interpreting the Third Wave of Sainsbury’s US diversification, European Journal of Marketing, (34), pp. 891–918. Wrigley, N. (2002) The landscape of pan-European food retail consolidation, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 30(2), pp. 81–91. Wrigley, N. & Currah, A. (2003) The stresses of retail internationalization: lessons from Royal Ahold’s experience in Latin America, International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, 13, pp. 221–243. 52 M. Palmer & B. Quinn Downloaded by

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - It is argued that international retail research has overlooked an essential component of the retail internationalization process, notably learning. This paper proposes an exploratory framework that enables the application of learning theory to the study of international retailing. The paper provides a meaningful starting point for developing an overarching framework which would represent one sort of re-conceptualization of the retail internationalization process, and arguably a new perspective for reinterpreting, re-evaluating and refining the existing literature on international retailing. Alongside this exploratory framework, we present a series of research propositions that might serve as an agenda for research into international retail learning. The paper concludes with a summary of the key themes and ways in which the area of international retail learning may be investigated.

AB - It is argued that international retail research has overlooked an essential component of the retail internationalization process, notably learning. This paper proposes an exploratory framework that enables the application of learning theory to the study of international retailing. The paper provides a meaningful starting point for developing an overarching framework which would represent one sort of re-conceptualization of the retail internationalization process, and arguably a new perspective for reinterpreting, re-evaluating and refining the existing literature on international retailing. Alongside this exploratory framework, we present a series of research propositions that might serve as an agenda for research into international retail learning. The paper concludes with a summary of the key themes and ways in which the area of international retail learning may be investigated.

U2 - 10.1080/0959396042000299111

DO - 10.1080/0959396042000299111

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 27

EP - 52

JO - International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research

T2 - International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research

JF - International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research

SN - 0959-3969

IS - 1

ER -