An experimental study of the thermal performance of a novel intumescent fireprotection coating

Talal Fateh, Eric Guillaume, Paul Joseph

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The thermal performance of a novel intumescent coating was investigated at a laboratoryscale. A combination of small and large-scale tests was performed in order to fullyunderstand the behavior of the coating. For small-scale testing, experiments were conductedusing thermogravimetric analyses. These experiments were run at several heating rates in anitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that the thermal degradation of the coating occurredin different stages, and, the main mass loss took place around 300°C. Furthermore, thecurrent work showed that oxygen doesn’t exert any significant effect during the early stagesof degradation of the materials; however, its interference can be noted past the attainment ofthe peak value for mass loss rate curve.For large-scale testing, the experiments were carried out in a cone calorimeter using astainless steel plate as a platform to support the test specimen. The back surface temperatureand expansion height of the intumescent coating were measured as a function of time. Severalfactors such as heat flux, distance to cone heater and coating thickness were also investigated.The results showed that the normalized expansion height of intumescent coating wasconsistent at different heat flux levels. Hence the expansion of the coating can be consideredto be dependent only on the mass loss rates and not the value of the external heat flux.Also, results from the cone tests, permit the formulation of an experimental protocol forevaluating of the thermal shielding efficiency of the intumescent coatings. The resultsshowed that the data obtained using a cone calorimeter with 2.5 cm of distance cannot becompared with other distances, such as 4 or 6 cm. The present work also showed that thevalues of the relevant parameters did not differ significantly at distances to the cone heaterabove 4 cm.In a second evaluation, the new intumescent coating was applied to polyurethane andGypsum boards, for study using cone calorimetry. The use of the coating led to a decrease inthe peak of heat release rate for combustion of polyurethane. The application of a coatinglayer can be used to decrease the overall requirement of thickness of the Gypsum boardwithout compromising its thermal insulation performance.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages132-141
    JournalFire Safety Journal
    VolumeNA
    Early online date9 Jun 2017
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Sep 2017

    Fingerprint

    coatings
    Coatings
    Cones
    cones
    Heat flux
    heat flux
    Polyurethanes
    Calorimeters
    expansion
    calorimeters
    heat shielding
    Heat shielding
    Hot Temperature
    Calcium Sulfate
    thermal insulation
    gypsum
    Steel
    Experiments
    thermal degradation
    Thermal insulation

    Keywords

    • Cone calorimeter
    • Thermogravimetric analysis
    • Fire-protection
    • Intumescent
    • coating
    • Temperature profiles
    • Thermal shielding.

    Cite this

    Fateh, Talal ; Guillaume, Eric ; Joseph, Paul. / An experimental study of the thermal performance of a novel intumescent fireprotection coating. 2017 ; Vol. NA. pp. 132-141.
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    title = "An experimental study of the thermal performance of a novel intumescent fireprotection coating",
    abstract = "The thermal performance of a novel intumescent coating was investigated at a laboratoryscale. A combination of small and large-scale tests was performed in order to fullyunderstand the behavior of the coating. For small-scale testing, experiments were conductedusing thermogravimetric analyses. These experiments were run at several heating rates in anitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that the thermal degradation of the coating occurredin different stages, and, the main mass loss took place around 300°C. Furthermore, thecurrent work showed that oxygen doesn’t exert any significant effect during the early stagesof degradation of the materials; however, its interference can be noted past the attainment ofthe peak value for mass loss rate curve.For large-scale testing, the experiments were carried out in a cone calorimeter using astainless steel plate as a platform to support the test specimen. The back surface temperatureand expansion height of the intumescent coating were measured as a function of time. Severalfactors such as heat flux, distance to cone heater and coating thickness were also investigated.The results showed that the normalized expansion height of intumescent coating wasconsistent at different heat flux levels. Hence the expansion of the coating can be consideredto be dependent only on the mass loss rates and not the value of the external heat flux.Also, results from the cone tests, permit the formulation of an experimental protocol forevaluating of the thermal shielding efficiency of the intumescent coatings. The resultsshowed that the data obtained using a cone calorimeter with 2.5 cm of distance cannot becompared with other distances, such as 4 or 6 cm. The present work also showed that thevalues of the relevant parameters did not differ significantly at distances to the cone heaterabove 4 cm.In a second evaluation, the new intumescent coating was applied to polyurethane andGypsum boards, for study using cone calorimetry. The use of the coating led to a decrease inthe peak of heat release rate for combustion of polyurethane. The application of a coatinglayer can be used to decrease the overall requirement of thickness of the Gypsum boardwithout compromising its thermal insulation performance.",
    keywords = "Cone calorimeter, Thermogravimetric analysis, Fire-protection, Intumescent, coating, Temperature profiles, Thermal shielding.",
    author = "Talal Fateh and Eric Guillaume and Paul Joseph",
    note = "Reference text: References 1. M. Jimenez, S. Duquesne, S. Bourbigot, Intumescent fire protective coating: Toward a better understanding of their mechanism of action. Thermochimica Acta. 449 (2006) 16–26. 2. Z. Han, A. Fina, G. Malucelli, G. Camino, Testing fire protective properties of intumescent coatings by in-line temperature measurements on a cone calorimeter. Progress in Organic Coatings. 69 (2010) 475–480. 3. C. Chou, S. Lin, C. Wang, Preparation and characterization of the intumescent fire retardant coating with a new flame retardant. Advanced Powder Technology. 20 (2009) 169-176. 4. M. Wladyka-Przybylak, R. Kozlowski, Thermal characteristics of different intumescent coatings. Fire and Materials. 23 (1999) 33–43. 5. Y. J. Chuang, Y. H. Chuang, C.Y. Lin, Fire tests to study heat insulation scenario of galvanized rolling shutters sprayed with intumescent coatings, Materials and Design. 30 (2009) 2576–2583. 6. Z. Wang, E. Han, W. Ke, An investigation into fire protection and water resistance of intumescent nano-coatings. Surface and Coatings Technology. 201 (2006) 1528– 1535. 7. S. Duquesne, S. Magnet, C. Jama, R. Delobel, Intumescent paints: fire protective coatings for metallic substrates. Surface and Coatings Technology 180 –181 (2004) 302–307. 8. M. Bartholmai, B. Schartel, Assessing the performance of intumescent coatings using bench-scaled cone calorimeter and finite difference simulations. Fire and Materials. 31 (2007) 187-205. 9. G. Camino, G. Martinasso, L. Costa, Thermal degradation of pentaerythritol diphosphate, model compound for fire retardant intumescent systems: Part I-Overall thermal degradation. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 27 (1990) 285-296. 10. B. Schartel, T.R. Hull, Development of fire-retarded materials - Interpretation of cone calorimeter data. Fire and Materials. 31 (2007) 327-354. 11. T. Fateh, T. Rogaume, F. Richard, Multi-scale modeling of the thermal decomposition of fire retardant plywood. Fire safety Journal. 64 (2014) 36-47. 12. ISO 5660-1. Reaction-to-fire tests — Heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate — Part 1: Heat release rate (cone calorimeter method) and smoke production rate (dynamic measurement) (2015). 13. T.M. Kotresh, R. Indushekar, M.S. Subbulakshmi, S.N. Vijayalakshmi, A.S. Krishna Prasad, K. Gaurav, Evaluation of foam/single and multiple layer Nomex fabric combinations in the cone calorimeter. Polymer Test. 24 (2005) 607–612. 14. V. Babrauskas, The cone calorimeter, SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering, Section 3 (3rd ed), National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA (2002) 63–81. 15. V. Babrauskas, Why was the fire so big? HHR: The role of heat release rate in described fires, Fire and Arson Investigation. 47 (1997) 54–57. 16. V. Babrauskas, R.D. Peacock, Heat release rate: the single most important variable in fire hazard, Fire Safety Journal. 18 (1992) 255–272. 17. Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Bailey, A. Taylor, Global modelling of fire protection performance of intumescent coating under different cone calorimeter heating conditions. Fire Safety Journal. 50 (2012) 51-62. 18. Y. Wang, U. Goransson, G. Holmstedt, A. Omrane, A Model for Prediction of Temperature in Steel Structure Protected by Intumescent Coating, based on Tests in the Cone Calorimeter, Fire Safety Science. 8 (2005) 235-246. 19. A. Omrane, Y.C. Wang, U. G{\"o}ransson, G. Holmstedt, M. Ald{\'e}n, Intumescent coating surface temperature measurement in a cone calorimeter using laser-induced phosphorescence, Fire Safety Journal. 42 (2007) 68-74. 20. J. L. De Ris, M. M. Khan, A sample holder for determining material properties, Fire and Materials. 24 (2000) 219-226. 21. M. Delichatsios, Piloted ignition times, critical heat fluxes and mass loss rates at reduced oxygen atmospheres, Fire safety Journal. 40 (2005) 197-212. 22. C. Branca, A. Albano, C. Di Blasi, Critical evaluation of global mechanisms of wood devolatilization. Thermochimica Acta, 429 (2005)133–141. 23. T. Fateh, T. Rogaume, J. Luche, F. Richard, F. Jabouille, Kinetic and mechanism of the thermal degradation of a plywood by using thermogravimetry and Fouriertransformed infrared spectroscopy analysis in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Fire Safety Journal. 58 (2013) 25-37. 24. G.J. Griffin, The modeling of heat transfer across intumescent polymer coatings, Journal of Fire Science. 28 (2010) 249–277. 25. C. Di Blasi, Modeling the effects of high radiative heat fluxes on intumescent material decomposition, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 71 (2004) 721–737. 26. C. Di Blasi, C. Branca, Mathematical model for the nonsteady decomposition of intumescent coatings, Aiche Journal. 47 (2001) 2359–2370. 27. C. Branca, C. Di Blasi, H. Horacek, Analysis of the combustion kinetics and thermal behavior of an intumescent system, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 41 (2002) 2107–2114. 28. G.J. Griffin, A.D. Bicknell, T.J. Brown, Studies on the effect of atmospheric oxygen content on the thermal resistance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings, Journal of Fire Sciences. 23 (2005) 303–328. 29. M. Jimenez, S. Duquesne, S. Bourbigot, Kinetic analysis of the thermal degradation of an epoxy-based intumescent coating, Polymer Degradation and Stability. 94 (2009) 404–409. 30. M. T. Wilson, B. Z. Dlugogorski and E. M. Kennedy, Uniformity of radiant heat fluxes in cone calorimeter. Fire Safety Science 7 (2003) 815-826. 31. M. J. A. Gemaque, F. S. Costa, View Factors of Samples Tested in Cone and Cylinder Calorimeters, Journal of heat transfer. 134 (9) (2012) Article Number: 094503. 32. S. Kang, S. Choi, J. Y. Choi, View factor in cone calorimeter testing, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 93 (2016) 217–227. 33. J.E.J. Staggs, A theoretical appraisal of the effectiveness of idealized ablative coatings for steel protection. Fire Safety Journal. 43 (2008) 618–625. 34. C. E. Anderson, D. K. Wauters, A Thermodynamic Heat Transfer Model for Intumescent Systems, International Journal of Engineering Science. 22 (1984) 881– 889. 35. Y. C. Shih, F. B. Cheung, J. H. Koo, Theoretical Modeling of Intumescent Fire- Retardant Materials, Journal of Fire Sciences. 16 (1998) 46–71. 36. J. Buckmaster, C. Anderson, A. Nachman, A model for intumescent paints, International Journal of Engineering Science. 24 (1986) 263–276. 37. G. Elvin, Building Green with Nanotechnology, Green Technology Forum, US. 2007. 38. B. Meacham, B. Poole, J. Echeverria, R. Cheng Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings. Tech. Rep. November the Fire Protection Research Foundation (2012). 39. Thermal and Ignition Barriers for the SPF Industry-AY-126- Spray Polyurethane Foam Alliance (SPFA), (2011). 40. Arr{\^e}t{\'e} du 6 octobre 2004, portant approbation de dispositions compl{\'e}tant et modifiant le r{\`e}glement de s{\'e}curit{\'e} contre les risques d'incendie et de panique dans les {\'e}tablissements recevant du public. 41. ELISSA project FP7-2013-NMP-ENV-EeB, Energy Efficient Lightweightsustainable- Safe-Steel Construction. http://elissaproject.eu/.",
    year = "2017",
    month = "9",
    doi = "10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.05.021",
    language = "English",
    volume = "NA",
    pages = "132--141",

    }

    An experimental study of the thermal performance of a novel intumescent fireprotection coating. / Fateh, Talal; Guillaume, Eric; Joseph, Paul.

    Vol. NA, 09.2017, p. 132-141.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - An experimental study of the thermal performance of a novel intumescent fireprotection coating

    AU - Fateh, Talal

    AU - Guillaume, Eric

    AU - Joseph, Paul

    N1 - Reference text: References 1. M. Jimenez, S. Duquesne, S. Bourbigot, Intumescent fire protective coating: Toward a better understanding of their mechanism of action. Thermochimica Acta. 449 (2006) 16–26. 2. Z. Han, A. Fina, G. Malucelli, G. Camino, Testing fire protective properties of intumescent coatings by in-line temperature measurements on a cone calorimeter. Progress in Organic Coatings. 69 (2010) 475–480. 3. C. Chou, S. Lin, C. Wang, Preparation and characterization of the intumescent fire retardant coating with a new flame retardant. Advanced Powder Technology. 20 (2009) 169-176. 4. M. Wladyka-Przybylak, R. Kozlowski, Thermal characteristics of different intumescent coatings. Fire and Materials. 23 (1999) 33–43. 5. Y. J. Chuang, Y. H. Chuang, C.Y. Lin, Fire tests to study heat insulation scenario of galvanized rolling shutters sprayed with intumescent coatings, Materials and Design. 30 (2009) 2576–2583. 6. Z. Wang, E. Han, W. Ke, An investigation into fire protection and water resistance of intumescent nano-coatings. Surface and Coatings Technology. 201 (2006) 1528– 1535. 7. S. Duquesne, S. Magnet, C. Jama, R. Delobel, Intumescent paints: fire protective coatings for metallic substrates. Surface and Coatings Technology 180 –181 (2004) 302–307. 8. M. Bartholmai, B. Schartel, Assessing the performance of intumescent coatings using bench-scaled cone calorimeter and finite difference simulations. Fire and Materials. 31 (2007) 187-205. 9. G. Camino, G. Martinasso, L. Costa, Thermal degradation of pentaerythritol diphosphate, model compound for fire retardant intumescent systems: Part I-Overall thermal degradation. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 27 (1990) 285-296. 10. B. Schartel, T.R. Hull, Development of fire-retarded materials - Interpretation of cone calorimeter data. Fire and Materials. 31 (2007) 327-354. 11. T. Fateh, T. Rogaume, F. Richard, Multi-scale modeling of the thermal decomposition of fire retardant plywood. Fire safety Journal. 64 (2014) 36-47. 12. ISO 5660-1. Reaction-to-fire tests — Heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate — Part 1: Heat release rate (cone calorimeter method) and smoke production rate (dynamic measurement) (2015). 13. T.M. Kotresh, R. Indushekar, M.S. Subbulakshmi, S.N. Vijayalakshmi, A.S. Krishna Prasad, K. Gaurav, Evaluation of foam/single and multiple layer Nomex fabric combinations in the cone calorimeter. Polymer Test. 24 (2005) 607–612. 14. V. Babrauskas, The cone calorimeter, SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering, Section 3 (3rd ed), National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA (2002) 63–81. 15. V. Babrauskas, Why was the fire so big? HHR: The role of heat release rate in described fires, Fire and Arson Investigation. 47 (1997) 54–57. 16. V. Babrauskas, R.D. Peacock, Heat release rate: the single most important variable in fire hazard, Fire Safety Journal. 18 (1992) 255–272. 17. Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Bailey, A. Taylor, Global modelling of fire protection performance of intumescent coating under different cone calorimeter heating conditions. Fire Safety Journal. 50 (2012) 51-62. 18. Y. Wang, U. Goransson, G. Holmstedt, A. Omrane, A Model for Prediction of Temperature in Steel Structure Protected by Intumescent Coating, based on Tests in the Cone Calorimeter, Fire Safety Science. 8 (2005) 235-246. 19. A. Omrane, Y.C. Wang, U. Göransson, G. Holmstedt, M. Aldén, Intumescent coating surface temperature measurement in a cone calorimeter using laser-induced phosphorescence, Fire Safety Journal. 42 (2007) 68-74. 20. J. L. De Ris, M. M. Khan, A sample holder for determining material properties, Fire and Materials. 24 (2000) 219-226. 21. M. Delichatsios, Piloted ignition times, critical heat fluxes and mass loss rates at reduced oxygen atmospheres, Fire safety Journal. 40 (2005) 197-212. 22. C. Branca, A. Albano, C. Di Blasi, Critical evaluation of global mechanisms of wood devolatilization. Thermochimica Acta, 429 (2005)133–141. 23. T. Fateh, T. Rogaume, J. Luche, F. Richard, F. Jabouille, Kinetic and mechanism of the thermal degradation of a plywood by using thermogravimetry and Fouriertransformed infrared spectroscopy analysis in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Fire Safety Journal. 58 (2013) 25-37. 24. G.J. Griffin, The modeling of heat transfer across intumescent polymer coatings, Journal of Fire Science. 28 (2010) 249–277. 25. C. Di Blasi, Modeling the effects of high radiative heat fluxes on intumescent material decomposition, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 71 (2004) 721–737. 26. C. Di Blasi, C. Branca, Mathematical model for the nonsteady decomposition of intumescent coatings, Aiche Journal. 47 (2001) 2359–2370. 27. C. Branca, C. Di Blasi, H. Horacek, Analysis of the combustion kinetics and thermal behavior of an intumescent system, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 41 (2002) 2107–2114. 28. G.J. Griffin, A.D. Bicknell, T.J. Brown, Studies on the effect of atmospheric oxygen content on the thermal resistance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings, Journal of Fire Sciences. 23 (2005) 303–328. 29. M. Jimenez, S. Duquesne, S. Bourbigot, Kinetic analysis of the thermal degradation of an epoxy-based intumescent coating, Polymer Degradation and Stability. 94 (2009) 404–409. 30. M. T. Wilson, B. Z. Dlugogorski and E. M. Kennedy, Uniformity of radiant heat fluxes in cone calorimeter. Fire Safety Science 7 (2003) 815-826. 31. M. J. A. Gemaque, F. S. Costa, View Factors of Samples Tested in Cone and Cylinder Calorimeters, Journal of heat transfer. 134 (9) (2012) Article Number: 094503. 32. S. Kang, S. Choi, J. Y. Choi, View factor in cone calorimeter testing, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 93 (2016) 217–227. 33. J.E.J. Staggs, A theoretical appraisal of the effectiveness of idealized ablative coatings for steel protection. Fire Safety Journal. 43 (2008) 618–625. 34. C. E. Anderson, D. K. Wauters, A Thermodynamic Heat Transfer Model for Intumescent Systems, International Journal of Engineering Science. 22 (1984) 881– 889. 35. Y. C. Shih, F. B. Cheung, J. H. Koo, Theoretical Modeling of Intumescent Fire- Retardant Materials, Journal of Fire Sciences. 16 (1998) 46–71. 36. J. Buckmaster, C. Anderson, A. Nachman, A model for intumescent paints, International Journal of Engineering Science. 24 (1986) 263–276. 37. G. Elvin, Building Green with Nanotechnology, Green Technology Forum, US. 2007. 38. B. Meacham, B. Poole, J. Echeverria, R. Cheng Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings. Tech. Rep. November the Fire Protection Research Foundation (2012). 39. Thermal and Ignition Barriers for the SPF Industry-AY-126- Spray Polyurethane Foam Alliance (SPFA), (2011). 40. Arrêté du 6 octobre 2004, portant approbation de dispositions complétant et modifiant le règlement de sécurité contre les risques d'incendie et de panique dans les établissements recevant du public. 41. ELISSA project FP7-2013-NMP-ENV-EeB, Energy Efficient Lightweightsustainable- Safe-Steel Construction. http://elissaproject.eu/.

    PY - 2017/9

    Y1 - 2017/9

    N2 - The thermal performance of a novel intumescent coating was investigated at a laboratoryscale. A combination of small and large-scale tests was performed in order to fullyunderstand the behavior of the coating. For small-scale testing, experiments were conductedusing thermogravimetric analyses. These experiments were run at several heating rates in anitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that the thermal degradation of the coating occurredin different stages, and, the main mass loss took place around 300°C. Furthermore, thecurrent work showed that oxygen doesn’t exert any significant effect during the early stagesof degradation of the materials; however, its interference can be noted past the attainment ofthe peak value for mass loss rate curve.For large-scale testing, the experiments were carried out in a cone calorimeter using astainless steel plate as a platform to support the test specimen. The back surface temperatureand expansion height of the intumescent coating were measured as a function of time. Severalfactors such as heat flux, distance to cone heater and coating thickness were also investigated.The results showed that the normalized expansion height of intumescent coating wasconsistent at different heat flux levels. Hence the expansion of the coating can be consideredto be dependent only on the mass loss rates and not the value of the external heat flux.Also, results from the cone tests, permit the formulation of an experimental protocol forevaluating of the thermal shielding efficiency of the intumescent coatings. The resultsshowed that the data obtained using a cone calorimeter with 2.5 cm of distance cannot becompared with other distances, such as 4 or 6 cm. The present work also showed that thevalues of the relevant parameters did not differ significantly at distances to the cone heaterabove 4 cm.In a second evaluation, the new intumescent coating was applied to polyurethane andGypsum boards, for study using cone calorimetry. The use of the coating led to a decrease inthe peak of heat release rate for combustion of polyurethane. The application of a coatinglayer can be used to decrease the overall requirement of thickness of the Gypsum boardwithout compromising its thermal insulation performance.

    AB - The thermal performance of a novel intumescent coating was investigated at a laboratoryscale. A combination of small and large-scale tests was performed in order to fullyunderstand the behavior of the coating. For small-scale testing, experiments were conductedusing thermogravimetric analyses. These experiments were run at several heating rates in anitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that the thermal degradation of the coating occurredin different stages, and, the main mass loss took place around 300°C. Furthermore, thecurrent work showed that oxygen doesn’t exert any significant effect during the early stagesof degradation of the materials; however, its interference can be noted past the attainment ofthe peak value for mass loss rate curve.For large-scale testing, the experiments were carried out in a cone calorimeter using astainless steel plate as a platform to support the test specimen. The back surface temperatureand expansion height of the intumescent coating were measured as a function of time. Severalfactors such as heat flux, distance to cone heater and coating thickness were also investigated.The results showed that the normalized expansion height of intumescent coating wasconsistent at different heat flux levels. Hence the expansion of the coating can be consideredto be dependent only on the mass loss rates and not the value of the external heat flux.Also, results from the cone tests, permit the formulation of an experimental protocol forevaluating of the thermal shielding efficiency of the intumescent coatings. The resultsshowed that the data obtained using a cone calorimeter with 2.5 cm of distance cannot becompared with other distances, such as 4 or 6 cm. The present work also showed that thevalues of the relevant parameters did not differ significantly at distances to the cone heaterabove 4 cm.In a second evaluation, the new intumescent coating was applied to polyurethane andGypsum boards, for study using cone calorimetry. The use of the coating led to a decrease inthe peak of heat release rate for combustion of polyurethane. The application of a coatinglayer can be used to decrease the overall requirement of thickness of the Gypsum boardwithout compromising its thermal insulation performance.

    KW - Cone calorimeter

    KW - Thermogravimetric analysis

    KW - Fire-protection

    KW - Intumescent

    KW - coating

    KW - Temperature profiles

    KW - Thermal shielding.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.05.021

    DO - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.05.021

    M3 - Article

    VL - NA

    SP - 132

    EP - 141

    ER -